Table 1.

Summary of Antibiotic Prophylaxis Recommendations2,8,14,16,20,30,31,34

Type of ProcedureRecommending OrganizationAntibiotics Recommended?Regiment
UrologicAmerican Urologic AssociationYes, in high-risk patients or procedures16*Fluoroquinolone PO 1–2 hours preoperatively OR ampicillin + gentamicin 30–60 minutes preoperatively
GastrointestinalAmerican Society of Gastroenterologists/American Society of Colon and Rectal SurgeonsNoN/A
DentalAmerican Academy of Orthopaedic SurgeonsNoCephalexin 2 g PO 1 hour before
American Dental AssociationNo9,26,31N/A
CardiacAmerican Heart AssociationPreoperatively for all CIEDs; not recommended before other invasive procedures or postoperatively10Cefazolin 1 hour preoperatively or vancomycin 2 hours preoperatively
  • * Defined by the American Urologic Association as patients within 2 years of their joint replacement; immunocompromised patients; or patients with previous joint infections, malnourishment, hemophilia, HIV infection, diabetes, or malignancy. High-risk procedures include kidney stone manipulation, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, transrectal prostate biopsy, and bowel manipulation. Other high risks include patients with indwelling catheters, clean intermittent catheterization, urinary retention, recent urinary tract infection, indwelling ureteral stent, or urinary diversion.

  • Should be addressed on a patient-by-patient basis and incorporate both patient and physician preference as well as the presence of risk factors for infection, such as immunocompromised patients; those with inflammatory arthropathy; immunosuppressed patients; patients with HIV; those with previous joint infection, hemophilia, type 1 diabetes, or malignancy; and patients with a megaprostheses.

  • CIED, cardiac implantable electronic device; N/A, not applicable; PO, by mouth.