Table 1.

Epidemiologic Studies of the Association of Audiometric Hearing Impairment with Outcomes in Older Adults

Outcomes by CategoryOdds/Hazard Ratio (95% CI)*MeasureAuthors
    Cognitive decline1.2 (1.1–1.5)Increased risk of cognitive impairmentLin et al.6
    Dementia3.0 (1.4–6.3)Increased risk of dementia for moderate HILin et al.,9 Gallacher et al.10
Mental health
    Depression3.9 (1.3–11.3)Greater odds of depression in women with moderate HILi et al.,11 Mener et al.12
    Anxiety1.5 (1.3–1.7)Greater odds of anxiety disorderChung et al.,17 Tambs et al.18
    Social isolation3.5 (1.9–6.4)Greater odds in women per 10 dB of HIMick et al.19
Physical function
    Mortality1.5 (1.1–2.2)Increased risk of mortality for moderate HIContrera et al.,5 Fisher et al.20
    Falls1.6 (1.2–1.9)Greater odds of falls per 10 dB of HILin et al.,21 Viljanen et al.22
    Physical activity1.6 (1.1–2.2)Greater odds of lower physical activity for moderate HIGispen et al.,23 Loprinzi24
    Disability1.3 (1.1–1.9)Increased risk of disability for moderate HIChen et al.25
    Gait speed2.0 (1.2–3.3)Greater odds of low gait speed per 25 dB of HILi et al.,26 Viljanen et al.27
    Hospitalizations1.4 (1.1–1.7)Greater odds of hospitalizationGenther et al.28
    Unemployment2.0 (1.4–2.9)Greater odds of unemploymentEmmett and Francis,29 Lin et al.30
  • CI, confidence interval; dB, decibel; HI, hearing impairment.

  • * Compared with individuals without hearing impairment, taken from the first citation in column 4.