Table 1.

Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research Constructs Describing Domains That Influence the Success of Implementing an Intervention

DomainDefinition and Examples of Included Constructs
Intervention characteristicsDescribes the characteristics of the intervention being implemented into a particular organization; for example:
  • ∙ if the intervention is developed internally or externally

  • ∙ if the intervention can be adapted to meet local needs

  • ∙ perceived complexity of the intervention

Outer settingConsists of the economic, political, and social context outside of or encompassing the organization implementing change; for example:
  • ∙ how well the organization understands and prioritizes patient needs, including barriers and facilitators to meet those needs

  • ∙ external pressures on the organization, such as a need to meet external mandates, recommendations, and guidelines; pay-for-performance; and/or public or benchmark reporting

Inner settingIncludes the structural, political, and cultural contexts of the organization that may influence the implementation process; for example:
  • ∙ the organization's capacity for change, which includes individuals' receptivity to the intervention and the extent that the organization rewards, expects, and supports the intervention

  • ∙ the organization's readiness to change, which is affected by leadership engagement, resources available, and clear understanding of the intervention

Characteristics of individualsDescribes the characteristics of the individuals involved with the intervention and/or implementation process; for example:
  • ∙ individuals' attitudes toward and value placed on the intervention

  • ∙ individuals' perception of, relationship with, and commitment to the organization

ProcessDescribes components of the process, from planning to evaluation; for example:
  • ∙ the degree and quality of planning of the tasks needed to implement the intervention

  • ∙ involvement of key individuals in the implementation, such as opinion leaders, formal leaders, champions, and change agents

  • Data from refs. 12 and 13.