Table 4.

Intercept Coefficients: Estimated Marginal Mean Differences in Average HbA1c Level at the Index Date*

Category for Intercept Differences for Mean HbA1cFixed Effectsβ CoefficientSE (β)P ValueLinear Contrast P Values
NodeGrand mean at baseline (intercept)7.7680.172<.001<.001
    Mean HbA1c level difference, node 2 vs node 1−0.5770.113<.001
    Mean HbA1c level difference, node 3 vs node 1−0.3910.232.123
    Mean HbA1c level difference, node 4 vs node 1−0.3870.083<.001
Age (at baseline)Each additional year of age−0.0140.002.001NA
Charlson index scoreEach additional Charlson index score point−0.0910.031.011NA
SexFemale vs male−0.2310.040<.001NA
Race/ethnicityHispanic vs non-Hispanic white0.1370.112.243<.001
Non-Hispanic black vs non-Hispanic white0.3140.090.004
Non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander vs non-Hispanic white0.0150.087.865
Non-Hispanic other vs non-Hispanic white0.3930.128.009
Insurance statusContinually uninsured vs continually insured0.3750.125.010.002
Insurance gaps vs continually insured0.1330.051.022
Primary languageSpanish vs English0.0350.145.812.009
Cantonese or Mandarin vs English−0.2130.086.028
Other language vs English0.0790.104.457
Health care use3 or 4 Visits vs 1 or 2 visits0.0120.081.889.296
≥5 Visits vs 1 or 2 visits0.0920.101.383
  • * This multilevel model predicted mean HbA1c level as a function of diabetes status, primary language, and insurance status, adjusting for age, Charlson index score, sex, race/ethnicity, and node.

  • Assuming all other covariates equal zero.

  • Average number of annual primary care visits.

  • NA, not available; SE, standard error.