Table 5.

Slope Coefficients: Estimated Marginal Mean Differences in Average Change or Slope (Trajectory) of HbA1c Level for Every Unit Change in the Variable*

Category for Slope differences for mean HbA1cFixed Effectsβ CoefficientSE (β)P ValueLinear Contrast P Values
NodeGrand mean at baseline0.0330.0270.241>.500
    Mean HbA1c level difference, node 2 vs node 1−0.0060.0210.795
    Mean HbA1c level difference, node 3 vs node 10.0150.0400.723
    Mean HbA1c level difference, node 4 vs node 10.0060.0170.711
Age (at baseline)Each additional year of age−0.0030.000<0.001NA
Charlson index scoreEach additional Charlson index score point−0.0020.0060.796NA
SexFemale vs male0.0160.0090.075NA
Race/ethnicityHispanic vs non-Hispanic white0.0520.0280.087.22
Non-Hispanic black vs non-Hispanic white−0.0050.0300.858
Non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander vs non-Hispanic white−0.0140.0230.559
Non-Hispanic other vs non-Hispanic white−0.0520.0470.284
Insurance statusContinually uninsured vs continually insured0.0540.0210.024.014
Insurance gaps vs continually insured−0.0020.0100.833
Primary languageSpanish vs English−0.0600.0340.101.052
Cantonese or Mandarin vs English0.0390.0180.051
Other language vs English0.0190.0270.479
Health care use3 or 4 Visits vs 1 or 2 visits−0.0200.0200.333>.500
≥5 Visits vs 1 or 2 visits−0.0240.0210.280
  • * This multilevel model predicted mean HbA1c level as a function of diabetes status, primary language, and insurance status, adjusting for age, Charlson index score, sex, race/ethnicity, and node.

  • Assuming all other covariates equal zero.

  • Average number of annual primary care visits.

  • NA, not available; SE, standard error.