Table 1. Causes of Elevated Prolactin Concentrations
Hypothalamic/pituitary stalk damage
Pituitary disorders
Chronic renal failure
Cranial radiation
Polycystic ovary disease
  • Adapted with permission from Melmed S, Casanueva FF, Hoffman AR, et al; Endocrine Society. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:273–88.