Table 1. Participant Demographics for the Intervention and Control Groups
Intervention GroupControl GroupPearson χ2
Total participants7251.46848.6
    Item nonresponse*00.000.0
    African American5981.94667.6
    Item nonresponse11.411.5
Age (years).587
    Item nonresponse00.011.5
Marital status.994
    Married or long-term cohabitation1115.31014.7
    Never married4461.14058.8
    Item nonresponse22.857.4
    Some high school or less1825.02130.9
    High school graduate2636.11927.9
    Some college or more2737.52536.8
    Item nonresponse11.434.4
    Item nonresponse34.245.9
Yearly income.175
    Item nonresponse1216.71217.7
Uninsured in the past year.027
    Item nonresponse45.611.5
Two or more comorbidities.768
    Item nonresponse1318.11522.1
Reasons for initial ED visit.819
  • * Item nonresponse includes both missing data and the “prefer not to answer” response selection. There are no significant differences in missing data across groups, and these data were not included in the Chi-Square calculations.

  • Unemployed includes respondents looking for work, keeping house full time, students, not working for health reasons, and retired.

  • From a list of nine prevalent chronic conditions: hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, back pain, joint pain, depression, asthma, anxiety.

  • ED, emergency department.