Table 1. Study Data Sources and Measures and Data Collection Processes
Primary Data TypeDescription of DataData Collection ProcessStudy
DocumentsGrant applications and reports to TCHF (ACT only), e-mail communications, innovator presentations, and documents from innovators (scheduling templates, educational materials).For ACT, documents were collected throughout the study period and during observation visits. The Program Office and grantees share documents freely. For IWS, we collected relevant care delivery documents during site visits.ACT IWS
Online diariesMembers from each ACT innovation team (practice) report on implementation experiences via an online journal that is shared with other members of their team and the evaluation team.Evaluation team identified 5 to 7 people in each ACT practice to post diary entries. Each team had a private online diary room. Diary keepers were asked to post every 2 wk. Evaluators interacted with diary keepers to encourage posting.ACT
Field observationTwo 4-day visits with each practice to observe care deliveryDuring visits, 2 to 5 evaluators observed the care delivery process by shadowing clinicians, clinical support staff, and non-clinical support staff. This included observing huddles and other team meetings. During field observation, researchers took brief notes or jottings and used these to create a detailed set of field notes.ACT IWS
InterviewsSemi-structured interviews were conducted with practice membersWe conducted semi-structured interviews with 2 to 17 practice members during field visits, depending on practice size. Practice member with on-the-ground knowledge of practice operations and relevant contextual knowledge were selected for interviews.ACT IWS
SurveyCompleted by each practice to collect information about the organization (e.g., ownership, staffing patterns, turnover, panel characteristics)We distributed surveys to one person at each practice who worked with members of the practice to complete it. Information was returned to us either online or via paper. Survey responses were clarified with practices as needed.ACT IWS
REACHEither an exact count or an estimate of the proportion of patients in the practice who received some level of integrated careFor ACT we developed and tailored a tracking sheet to collect REACH data. Practices collected these data for one year and shared data with us quarterly. We reviewed data with practice to determine accuracy and made corrections as needed. For IWS practices, the research team used observational to estimate REACH for each practice.ACT
  • ACT, Advancing Care Together; IWS, Integration Workforce Study; TCHF, The Colorado Health Foundation.