Table 1. Contextual Factors that Shape Coordinating, Collaborating and Consulting
FactorsConsulting: Advice Seeking/GivingCoordinating: Separate, but Aligned Care DeliveryCollaborating: Shared Sense Making, Decision Making
PatientProblem/situation definableProblem/situation is complicated
Identified as needing expertise of another providerIdentified as needing professionals from different backgrounds to make sense of problem/treatment
ClinicianClinician with expertise to answer patient care questionClinician with expertise carries out next steps/treatmentClinicians work together to clarify patients' needs
Clinicians from different disciplines work as a team, conduct care team huddles and meet to discuss clinical care, close proximity of team, flexible schedule/time for warm handoffs.
PracticeClinicians from different disciplines (often colocated) are rapidly and reliably accessible to answer questions
SystemSupport for communication between separate behavioral and medical practicesSupport for synchronizing (behavioral and medical) care over timeSupport for shared learning about and with the patient.
ProblemDiscrete problemDefinable, discrete problemComplex, hard-to-define problem that seems intractable to treatment and/or linked to medical or social problem
Little uncertaintyModerate uncertainty or routine care needProfessionals need longer dialogue to clarify best strategy to deliver and engage patient in treatment
Information, when provided, allows advice seeker to act independentlyProfessional has expertise to address care need
Quick discussion positions professionals to act in loosely connected way
Engages patient in treatment