Table 1. Practice Characteristics, Layout of Physical Space, and Observed Patterns of Integrated Care Delivery (N = 19)
Practice ID14671112131415171825389101619
Layout typea1111111111122222222
Practice characteristics
    Primary care/mental healthBothPrimary carePrimary carePrimary CarePrimary carePrimary carePrimary carePrimary careBothMental healthMental healthBothPrimary careBothPrimary CarePrimary carePrimary carePrimary careMental health
    Geographic locationUrbanSuburbanSuburbanSuburbanRuralSuburbanUrbanSuburbanUrbanRuralSuburbanSuburbanUrbanUrbanUrbanRuralSuburbanSuburbanRural
    OwnershipPrivate, not for profitPrivate, not for profitPrivate, not for profitClinicianHospital systemHospital systemClinicianHospital system, HMOGovernmentPrivate, not for profitPrivate, not for profitPrivate, not for profitHospital systemPrivatePrivate, not for profitClinicianClinicianHospital systemPrivate, not for profit
    Funding designationFQHC/CMHCFQHCFQHCNoneNoneFQHCNoneNoneGovernmentCMHCCMHCFQHC/CMHCNoneGovernmentFQHCNoneNoneFQHCCMHC
Physical layout build/modifications
    New constructionXXX
    Remodeled spaceXXX
    Existing spacebXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Functional characteristics
    BHC and PCC office locationsSeparate FloorsVariabledSame floorSeparate LocationsSame FloorSame FloorSame FloorVariableVariableSame FloorVariablePodsSame floorSame FloorSame floorSame FloorSame FloorSame FloorSame Floor
    BHC and PCC shared office
    Workflow pathway (BHC in proximity)XXXXXXXXXXX
Treatment spacec
    Exam roomXXXXXXXX
    Private officeXXXXXXXXXX
    Accessibility of BHCCrisisSometimesSometimesRareSometimesRareSometimesRareSometimesXXX
Integrated care typeRareRareAlwaysAlwaysMostSometimesSometimesSometimesSometimesSometimes
    Bidirectional (CMHC-FQHC hybrid)X
Integrated care modelXXX
    Fully integratedXXX
    Partially integratedXXXXX
    Referral onlyXXXXX
  • BH, behavioral health; BHC, behavioral health clinician; CMHC, community mental health center; FQHC, federally qualified health center; HMO, health maintenance organization; PC, primary care; PCC, primary care clinician.

  • a Type 1 nuances: separate floors or same floor, both options (same floor preferred, if not available other floor), another location. Type 2 nuances: all providers/staff in one space; some providers in one space with medical assistants separate; teams organized into pods.

  • b Existing space is defined as clinic existing prior to integration efforts commencing, with only minor changes to accommodate new model of care delivery.

  • c Where the new clinician sees patients.

  • d Variable (primary, same floor; backup, separate locations).