Table 1. Subject Characteristics by Quintile of Magnesium Intake*
Sample size (n)1,6811,7271,8341,8161,8368,894
Magnesium intake
    Mean (mg/day)138216281361581334
    Range (mg/day)0–183184–246247–315316–417418–24370–2437
    Deficient intake (%)10010058.518.1054.0
Depression (PHQ-9 score)
    Depressed (score ≥5) (%)32.224.520.520.521.123.2
Mean age (years)44.645.846.246.946.546.1
    Senior (≥65 years old) (%)16.616.516.714.713.915.5
Race/ethnicity (%)
    Other Hispanic12.612.411.19.38.710.8
    Non-Hispanic white39.244.146.652.157.348.1
    Non-Hispanic black28.721.818.915.912.119.3
Male sex (%)26.938.846.253.563.247.4
Social (%)
    High school graduate73.680.88286.586.782.5
    Married (or living as married)54.958.262.766.168.062.6
    Food insecurity23.416.313.511.010.814.4
    Household income <$35,000/year47.833.229.623.224.430.5
    Current smoker (%)31.220.920.52017.721.5
    Mean drinks per day0.
Chronic disease (%)
    Kidney disease3.
Dietary folate equivalent intake (%)58.623.
  • * The trend across quintiles of magnesium intake is significant with P ≤ .001 for all characteristics using an unadjusted nonparametric test of trend.25

  • Lowest quintile (<230 μg/day).

  • PHQ-9, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire.