Table 1. Characteristics of the Study Population and Health Care Encounters
Observations (n)Mean (SD)Percentage
Characteristics of the study population*
        Female sex2,13859.5
        Age2,13852.0 (14.3)
    Diabetes mellitus
        Diagnosis from registry2,13853.1
        Years since diabetes onset2,1381.2 (3.0)
    Risk factors
        Prescribed insulin1,71222.0
        Tobacco smoker1,59344.0
        Smokeless tobacco user1,5939.5
        High LDL diagnosis1,71270.4
        Prescribed insulin1,71222.0
        Body mass index1,84536.2 (8.4)
            >25 (overweight/obese)1,84193.8
            >30 (obese)1,84177.6
        Systolic BP2,104138.6 (21.0)
        Diastolic BP2,10479.0 (12.9)
        Hypertension diagnosis (systolic BP ≥140 or diastolic BP ≥90)2,10450.2
        Distance from clinic (miles)2,1077.1 (10.5)
        Matanuska-Susitna borough resident2,10710.2
Summary statistics of quarterly health care encounters
    At least one encounter during the past year56,90692.2
    Primary care visits that quarter (n)56,9062.62 (3.32)
    HbA1c percentage (most recent measurement)52,1457.5 (1.8)
    Days between HbA1c measurements52,145378.0 (607.1)
    Attended nutrition and exercise education classes55,4070.9 (4.8)
    At least one primary care visit per 6 months in the past year54,57278.1
  • * Measured during the first encounter.

  • Binary measure.

  • BP, blood pressure; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SD, standard deviation.