Table 1. Case Reports of Previously Healthy Boys Who Had a Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Urinary Tract Abnormality Found on Each Case
AuthorsAge (years)Symptoms ReportedUrinalysis (cells/hpf)Urine culture (Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in CFUs/mL)Second Urine CultureUrinary Tract Abnormality
Hagler & Dobkin29Dysuria, difficulty initiating urinary streamRBCs 3–6, WBCs 100, large bacteria>100,000 and EnterococcusSame as firstDiverticulum of the bladder
11Fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, sore throat, diarrheaWBCs 20–30, large bacteria>100,000Same as firstDiverticulum of the bladder
Hall & Snitzer36Fever, abdominal and flank pain, vomitingRBCs 2–4, proteinuria +1, ketonuria +1>1,000,000Same as firstBilateral grade III reflux, bilateral duplicating collecting system
7Fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, chillsRBCs 0–1, WBCs 3–5, proteinuria +1, trace blood, ketonuria +2>100,000>50,000Right grade III reflux, left grade II reflux
McDonald and Lohr411Fever, abdominal pain, vomiting,WBCs 5–8, trace leukocyte esterase>100,000Same as firstRight grade III reflux
Upadhyayula et al5<1Fever, upper respiratory symptomsWBCs <51000–100,000>100,000Right grade V reflux, left grade IV reflux
  • RBC, red blood cell; WBC, white blood cell.