Table 5. Take-Home Points on Specific Population Groups to Test for Latent Tuberculosis Infections (LTBIs)
CategoriesPopulation GroupsDescription
High risk of exposure or infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis10,12,58Close contactChildren, adolescents, or adults with close contact with high-risk adults
Congregated living conditionsEmployees or residents of long-term care facilities, correctional facilities, homeless shelters
Foreign bornPeople who moved from countries with a high burden of TB to the United States (<5 years)
High risk of LTBI progression to TB disease10,12,58History of TBPeople acquiring latent TB infection within the previous 2 years or people with previous untreated/ineffective treatment of active TB with no sign of active TB at the time of starting latent TB treatment
AgeChildren <4 years
Substance usePeople who inject illicit drugs
ImmunosuppressionPeople with poor nutrition status; previous surgical interventions (e.g., gastrointestinal surgical procedures); immunosuppressive medications (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists, chronic corticosteroid use); immunocompromising conditions (e.g., HIV, chronic renal failure, diabetes mellitus, cancer)
  • HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; TB, tuberculosis.