Table 5. Individual Chronic Disease's Effects on Being Up to Date for Cervical Cancer Screening According to US Preventive Services Task Force Guidelines
Chronic DiseasesUp-to-Date Cervical Cancer Screening Status
Unadjusted Bivariate OR (95% CI)P ValueAdjusted OR (95% CI) for Demographics and Chronic Diseases*P ValueFinal Model, OR (95% CI)P Value
None1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
Arthritis0.84 (0.60–1.18).320.69 (0.46–1.03).070.66 (0.45–0.97).04
Asthma1.06 (0.65–1.70).820.90 (0.50–1.59).71Dropped
Cardiovascular disease0.71 (0.43–1.19).190.59 (0.32–1.08).09Dropped
Digestive disorders1.04 (0.73–1.49).810.70 (0.45–1.07).10Dropped
Diabetes mellitus type 1 or 20.70 (0.47–1.07).100.69 (0.39–1.20).190.60 (0.36–0.98).04
Depression/anxiety1.24 (0.90–1.70).181.07 (0.72–1.58).74Dropped
Hypertension0.65 (0.48–0.88).0060.57 (0.39–0.84).0040.53 (0.37–0.76).001
Low-back pain1.05 (0.73–1.50).800.72 (0.47–1.12).15Dropped
  • Analysis limited to women less than 65 years old with no history of hysterectomy, n = 740. All models included clinic as a random effect.

  • * Adjusted for age, marital status, ethnicity, body mass index classification, occupation, history of alcohol use, history of smoking, insurance status, length of contact with clinic, total number of visits in past 5 years, and the other chronic diseases.

  • Adjusted for marital status, body mass index classification, total number of visits in past 5 years, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and digestive disorders.