Table 4. Key Diagnostic and Treatment Recommendations for Practice According to the Strength of Recommendations Taxonomy71
Clinical RecommendationStrength of Recommendation*References
Sequential 2-step tuberculin skin tests should be performed in people who require baseline evaluations and have initial negative test results.C21
Tuberculin skin tests are preferred over interferon-γ release assays as the diagnostic tool in children <5 years old.B45
Interferon-γ release assays should be administered in adults, including BCG-vaccinated individuals or people with immunocompromising conditions.A37, 38, 44
Interferon-γ release assays should be administered in hard-to-reach groups for prompt identification and management of LTBI.A42, 45
Baseline laboratory values of hepatic enzyme levels should be performed in patients with HIV or underlying liver disease or in pregnant or postpartum women, in whom abnormal results should be evaluated routinely during LTBI therapy.B58
Daily regimen of isoniazid for a duration of 9 months is the medication of choice for LTBI in adults and children.A58
Equivalent therapeutic outcomes of a 12-dose regimen of isoniazid and rifapentine for a duration of 3 months, when compared with the daily regimen of isoniazid for a duration of 9 months, have demonstrated increased compliance.A69, 70
  • * Strength of recommendations: A = consistent and good quality patient-oriented evidence; B = inconsistent or limited quality patient-oriented evidence; C = consensus, usual practice, opinion, disease-oriented evidence, and case series for studies of diagnosis, treatment, prevention, or screening.

  • BCG, bacillus Calmette-Guérin; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; LTBI, latent tuberculosis infection.