Table 1. Baseline Sociodemographics, Healthcare Utilization, Health Characteristics, Preventive Care, and Health Behaviors by Study Insurance Status Group
No Insurance Change* (n = 89,616; 94.2%)Gained Insurance in Follow-up Year (n = 3212; 2.9%)Lost Insurance in Follow-up Year (n = 3193; 2.9%)P Value
Mean age, years46.236.534.8<.001
Female sex51.950.149.6.03
    Hispanic (any race)11.114.913
    Non-Hispanic white69.856.561.2
    Non-Hispanic black12.421.819.1
    Non-Hispanic other6.76.86.6
Education level<.001
    Less than high school6.47.55.9
    Some high school1217.819.6
    High school graduate323737
    Some college2322.324.1
    College graduate26.615.513.4
Household income (% of FPL)<.001
U.S. Census region<.001
Urban residence82.983.379.8.01
Insurance status<.001
Utilization and health characteristics
    Mean healthcare expenditures, $3961.21283.12327.0<.001
    Office visits (mean)<.001
    Prescription drugs (mean)<.001
    Report having a USOC78.452.163.9<.001
    Health status
        Physical (PCS-12) (mean)49.551.151.2<.001
        Mental (MCS-12) (mean)50.949.148.9<.001
Preventive care
    Influenza vaccine31.213.313.0<.001
    CRC screening39.817.728.6<.001
    Pap testing81.177.082.7<.001
    PSA testing51.725.928.8<.001
Health behaviors
    Always using seatbelts81.777.176.9<.001
    Not smoking79.168.665.4<.001
    Not obese74.474.074.5.64
  • Data are percentages unless otherwise indicated. All percentages are population-weighted.

  • * Includes both continuously insured and continuously uninsured participants.

  • χ2 Test for categorical variables, linear regression for continuous variables.

  • Defined as residence in a metropolitan statistical area.

  • § Of patients, 69.7% gained private insurance and 30.3% gained public insurance in the follow-up year.

  • CRC, colorectal cancer screening; FPL, Federal Poverty Level; MCS-12, 12-item Short Form mental component summary score; Pap, Papanicolaou; PCS-12, 12-item Short Form physical component summary score; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; USOC, usual source of healthcare.