Table 1. Sample Characteristics of Physicians Who Insert the Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) (n = 217)
Demographic and practice characteristics
    Female gender157 (72.4)
        Family physician132 (60.8)
        Obstetrician-gynecologist85 (39.2)
    Practice setting
        Academic43 (19.8)
        Private practice122 (56.2)
        Public health47 (21.7)
    Trains residents or fellows141 (65.0)
    ≥10 years since residency134 (61.8)
    ≥10 LNG-IUSs inserted/year96 (44.2)
    General, answered correctly
        LNG-IUS failure rate177 (81.6)
        LNG-IUS FDA-approved duration of use198 (91.2)
        Perfect score on 2 general knowledge items163 (75.1)
    Complications, answered correctly
        Infertility after removal206 (94.9)
        Increased risk for PID ≥20 days after insertion198 (91.2)
        Increased risk for PID <20 days after insertion125 (57.6)
        Increased risk of STI195 (89.9)
        Increased risk of ectopic pregnancy123 (56.7)
        Complications score, mean number answered correctly out of 5 (SD)*3.9 (0.93)
    Factors that negatively influence decision to recommend LNG-IUS, answered yes
        Increased risk of PID/STIs/infertility48 (22.1)
        Cramping/pain side effect25 (11.5)
        Irregular bleeding side effect69 (31.8)
        Medical liability4 (1.8)
        Cost47 (21.7)
    Routinely recommend LNG-IUS for the following patients, answered yes
        Nulliparous women121 (55.8)
        Women with a history of STIs/PID82 (37.8)
        Women with a history of ectopic pregnancy81 (37.3)
        Women <20 years old80 (36.9)
  • Data are n (%).

  • * Complications score is calculated from number of correct answers on the 5 questions listed.

  • PID, pelvic inflammatory disease; SD, standard deviation; STI, sexually transmitted infection; FDA, US Food and Drug Administration.