Table 2. Odds of and Marginal Changes in Preventive Care and Health Behaviors Associated With Changes in Health Insurance Status*
Patients (n)Base Unadjusted ModelsAdjusted Models
OR (95% CI)Marginal Change§ (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted Marginal Change§ (95% CI)
Preventive care
    Influenza vaccine28,6861.28 (1.08–1.52)6.1 (1.9–10.2)1.27 (1.04–1.56)3.6 (0.5–6.7)
    CRC screening12,6361.51 (0.99–2.30)9.9 (0.6–19.2)1.48 (0.96–2.29)2.5 (0.0–4.9)
    Pap testing11,4361.72 (1.37–2.15)12.7 (8.1–17.4)1.56 (1.22–2.00)8.5 (3.7–13.3)
    Mammography8,5861.66 (1.21–2.29)12.0 (5.3–18.8)1.70 (1.21–2.38)10.4 (3.6–17.1)
    PSA testing9,2061.42 (1.01–2.00)8.5 (0.6–16.4)1.42 (0.98–2.05)3.4 (−0.1 to 6.9)
Health behaviors
    Always using seatbelts22,1120.91 (0.78–1.07)−2.3 (−6.3 to 1.7)0.96 (0.81–1.14)−0.6 (−3.4 to 2.1)
    Not smoking9,5501.04 (0.82–1.31)0.9 (−4.9 to 6.8)0.96 (0.75–1.24)−0.5 (−3.6 to 2.7)
    Not obese17,9921.00 (0.81–1.22)−0.1 (−5.2 to 5.0)0.94 (0.74–1.19)−1.5 (−7.0 to 4.1)
  • * The reference group in all analyses is “no insurance.” Hence, the odds ratios (ORs) presented for each outcome pertain to an individual gaining insurance form baseline to follow-up, and the reciprocal of the ORs pertain to an individual losing insurance. The marginal changes presented pertain to an individual gaining insurance, whereas the negatives of the marginal changes pertain to an individual losing insurance.

  • Sample size of people who reported a change in the status of the preventive care or health behavior from their baseline year to their follow-up year.

  • Adjusted for income, employment, total healthcare expenditures, number of office visits to healthcare providers, number of drug prescriptions, availability of a usual source of care, and the 12-item Short Form physical and mental component summary scores, Census region, urbanicity, and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey calendar year.

  • § Marginal change is the percentage of increase (if positive) or decrease (if negative) in the preventive care or health behavior associated with changing insurance status (ie, gaining or losing insurance).

  • CI, confidence interval; CRC, colorectal cancer; Pap, Papanicolaou; PSA, prostate specific antigen.