Table 1. Respondent Demographic Characteristics by Emergency Department (ED) Visit Status
CharacteristicsNo ED Visit*At Least 1 Nonemergent ED VisitP Value
Predisposing characteristics
    Age, years<.001
    Hispanic ethnicity.061
        No degree12.518.2
        GED/high school49.757.3
        Bachelor's degree or more37.924.5
    Employment status<.001
        Not employed31.342.0
    Marital status<.001
        Never married19.326.6
    Able to speak English96.996.6.558
    More likely to take risks.031
        Disagree strongly43.745.6
        Disagree somewhat22.819.1
        Agree somewhat15.514.5
        Agree strongly4.04.8
    Can overcome illness without medical help.001
        Disagree strongly48.454.1
        Disagree somewhat22.521.2
        Agree somewhat16.512.0
        Agree strongly2.83.4
Enabling resources
    Income (% of poverty level)<.001
        <100 (poor)8.521.3
        100–199 (low income)14.822.8
        200–399 (middle income)30.630.3
        ≥400 (high income)46.125.6
    Health insurance<.001
Need factors
    Health status<.001
        Very good35.622.6
    Mental health<.001
        Very good32.723.5
    Coronary heart disease6.08.6.002
    Myocardial infarction3.96.0.001
    Other heart disease10.813.7.010
    High cholesterol36.635.8.662
  • Data are percentages. Values may not add up to 100% because of rounding.

  • * Unweighted sample size, n = 26,619; US population estimate, n = 298,545,330.

  • Unweighted sample size, n = 1,353; US population estimate, n = 13,089,564.

  • MSA, metropolitan statistical area.