Table 3. Estimation Results of the Two-Part Model of the Frequency of Nonemergent Emergency Department (ED) Visits
Binary Hurdle Model (Logit)Zero-Truncated Negative Binomial Model
Coefficientt ValueCoefficientt Value
Constant−2.382*−2.81−17.329*−5.52
Predisposing characteristics
    Age, years
        45–64−0.651*−7.76−0.490*−2.15
        ≥65−0.738*−5.39−0.717−1.93
    Female sex0.339*4.510.2441.23
    Race
        Black0.386*4.06−0.701*−3.33
        Other−0.123−0.79−0.853*−2.51
    Hispanic ethnicity−0.010−0.100.532*2.00
    Education
        GED/high school0.1551.470.490*2.08
        Bachelor's degree or more−0.078−0.570.825*2.70
    Employed−0.043−0.440.1870.93
    Marital status
        Widowed0.0350.200.4791.37
        Divorced0.0590.51−0.215−0.73
        Separated0.313*1.980.2480.56
        Never married0.1261.290.1730.79
    Able to speak English0.416*2.540.9261.67
    More likely to take risks0.0610.610.2060.94
    Can overcome illness without medical help−0.167−1.71−0.264−1.15
Enabling resources
    Income (% of poverty level)
        <100 (poor)0.716*5.150.1770.59
        100–199 (low income)0.495*3.980.0980.41
        200–399 (middle income)0.279*2.300.3211.23
    Health insurance
        Public0.1771.600.2941.36
        Uninsured0.0640.540.5031.92
    Region
        Midwest0.285*2.230.0280.10
        South0.0880.67−0.188−0.71
        West0.1481.11−0.033−0.11
    Urban MSA−0.090−0.860.2951.34
Need factors
    Health status
        Very good0.280*2.07−0.350−0.95
        Good0.777*5.570.1200.37
        Fair1.047*6.310.7131.87
        Poor1.689*8.260.857*1.96
    Mental health
        Very good−0.216*−2.090.2340.88
        Good−0.086−0.740.2201.00
        Fair0.0450.32−0.185−0.63
        Poor0.0450.220.4120.97
    Hypertension−0.105−1.10−0.233−0.91
    Coronary heart disease−0.103−0.70−0.104−0.25
    Angina0.1190.521.044*2.02
    Myocardial infarction−0.132−0.730.2240.49
    Other heart disease−0.011−0.09−0.647−1.94
    Stroke−0.468*−2.85−0.539−1.46
    Emphysema−0.041−0.22−0.211−0.66
    High cholesterol0.0540.550.724*3.36
    Diabetes−0.025−0.210.3561.39
    Arthritis−0.066−0.730.1260.67
    Asthma−0.335*−3.42−0.310−1.52
Patient-provider communication
    USC asks about other treatments0.1641.79−0.152−0.76
    USC shows respect for treatments0.0620.690.1610.78
    USC asks person to help decide−0.075−0.830.1790.90
    USC explains options to person−0.154−1.09−0.316−0.90
    USC speaks language or provides interpreter services−0.344−0.83−2.063*−2.28
Access
    Transportation to USC
        Is driven0.0470.390.2090.87
        Public transportation0.1550.900.0650.20
        Walks or other−0.161-0.660.7151.47
    Time to USC, minutes
        15–30−.077−0.99−0.211−1.13
        31–60−0.044−0.330.4181.20
        >600.2621.130.974*2.43
    USC has office hours on nights and weekends0.0510.620.324*2.02
    Difficulty getting to USC0.323*2.45−0.144−0.53
    Difficulty in contacting USC by phone0.1441.50−0.297−1.18
    Difficulty in contacting USC after hours0.180*2.290.387*1.96
  • * P < .05.

  • MSA, metropolitan statistical area; USC, usual source of care.