Table 1. Food and Drug Administration–Approved Incretins and Clinical Effects as Monotherapy611
GLP-1 Agonists or AnalogsDPP-4 Inhibitors
Exenatide ER (Bydureon)Exenatide (Byetta)Liraglutide (Victoza)Sitagliptin (Januvia)Saxagliptin (Onglyza)Linagliptin (Tradjenta)
Dosing frequencyOnce a weekTwice a dayDailyDailyDailyDaily
Change in A1c, %−1.6−0.9−1.1−0.5−0.5−0.4
Change in weight, kg−2.0−2.5−1.9−1.5−1.1−1.0
Adverse GI effects++ ++ +
Approximate monthly cost of therapy ($),12370360520260260280
  • ER, extended release; GLP, glucagon-like peptide; DPP, dipeptidyl peptidase; GI, gastrointestinal; SQ, subcutaneously.