Table 4. Effect of Auriculotherapy on Interval-Scaled Nicotine Withdrawal, Perceived Stress, and Tobacco Use at Weeks 3 and 6
Outcome MeasureTreatment Group4P*
Control (n = 61)Intervention (n = 64)GTG × T
Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale score
    Unadjusted mixed model
        Week 314.7 (12.7–16.7)13.4 (11.4–15.3).56.06.42
        Week 615.6 (13.5–17.7)15.5 (13.5–17.5)
    Adjusted mixed model
        Week 314.4 (12.2–16.8)12.9 (10.7–15.1).46.10.58
        Week 615.4 (13.0–17.8)14.8 (12.5–17.1)
Perceived Stress Scale score
    Unadjusted mixed model
        Week 35.2 (4.5–5.9)4.8 (4.1–5.5).42.05.75
        Week 65.6 (4.9–6.3)5.3 (4.6–6.0)
    Adjusted mixed model
        Week 35.0 (4.3–5.8)4.8 (4.0–5.5).61.16.99
        Week 65.4 (4.6–6.2)5.1 (4.4–5.9)
Cigarettes smoked among nonabstinent patients§ (n)
    Unadjusted mixed model
        Week 39.5 (6.7–12.2)6.8 (4.1–9.5).17.34.73
        Week 610.0 (7.3–12.7)8.0 (5.3–10.7)
    Adjusted mixed model
        Week 37.9 (4.9–10.9)7.0 (3.9–10.1).76.29.79
        Week 68.7 (5.7–11.7)8.3 (5.2–11.4)
  • * Reported P values for each measure represent overall tests about type 3 fixed effects for both unadjusted and adjusted models.

  • Values represent least squares mean (95% confidence interval) estimates from an unadjusted mixed model in which each outcome was regressed for treatment group (G), time occasion (T), the interaction between group and time (G × T), and the value of the outcome measure before measurement.

  • Values represent least squares mean (95% confidence interval) estimates from an adjusted mixed model that controls for age, sex, and the motivation to quit smoking at baseline.

  • § Study participants that remained nonabstinent at weeks 3 and 6, according to urine cotinine levels.