Table 3. Bivariate Analysis of Variables Not Included in the Multivariate Analysis of Antibiotic Prescription
VariablesOR95% CI
    Concerned parents during triage1.170.70–1.93
Physical examination
    Runny nose2.071.32–3.23
    Nasal flaring during breathing1.110.12–10.64
    Capillary refill >2 seconds1.450.63–3.33
    Abnormalities of the skin0.740.45–1.22
    Lymph nodes palpable in neck0.950.61–1.48
    Not able to get chin on chest1.550.42–5.77
Patient history (signs present at moment of contacting out-of-hours service)
    Temperature measured at home before contacting the out-of-hours service0.630.32–1.22
    Child previously seen by own family physician1.260.68–2.33
    Out-of-hours service repeatedly contacted0.840.38–1.83
    Drowsy/difficult to wake1.410.92–2.16
    Pale/gray/spotted skin1.410.92–2.16
    Skin rash0.820.48–1.42
    Fast breathing1.440.93–2.23
    Febrile seizure0.590.19–1.77
    Problems during previous febrile episode1.190.71–1.99
    Preterm labor0.810.45–1.46
    Under treatment of a pediatrician0.670.36–1.26
    Under treatment of an ear, nose, and throat physician1.330.56–3.16
    Received all recommended vaccinations1.490.41–5.37
    Language barrier1.440.67–3.07
    Played as usual0.800.51–1.23
    Drinking less than half than normal1.090.70–1.70
    Different illness than usual1.210.78–1.88
    Eye contact1.100.60–2.03
    Inconsolable crying1.230.80–1.88
    Crying by picking up1.140.72–1.81
Demographic data
    Sex (if male)1.270.83–1.95
    Country of birth of mother, not Dutch1.290.84–1.97
    Country of birth of father, not Dutch0.810.53–1.24
    Education of mother: high0.950.56–1.59
    Education of father: high1.100.69–1.76
    Ethnicity of child according to parents, not Dutch1.130.72–1.78
  • Bold: P < .10. The history and physical examination forms included categorical variables with possible answers: “no, little, very, very much.” These variables were dichotomized using a cutoff point between “little” and “very.” Categorical variables with possible answers: “no, little, almost normal, normal” were dichotomized using a cutoff point between “no” and “little.” Diarrhea was characterized as reported diarrhea more than twice a day. Decreased urine production was considered if micturition was much decreased or if there was no micturition at all. Income was categorized before the analysis in net income per month: “<450,” “451 to 635,” “636 to 860,” “861 to 1135,” “1136 to 1600,” “1601 to 2270,” “>2270 Euro.”

  • CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.