Table 1.

International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification Diagnosis and Procedure Codes Used to Select or Exclude Patients18

Inclusion codesBack Pain
721.3Lumbosacral spondylosis without myelopathy
721.42Spondylogenic compression of lumbar spinal cord
722.10Displacement of lumbar intervertebral disc without myelopathy
722.32Schmorl's nodes, lumbar
722.52Degeneration of lumbar or lumbosacral intervertebral disc
722.73Intervertebral disc disorder with myelopathy, lumbar
722.83Postlaminectomy syndrome, lumbar
722.93Other and unspecified disc disorder, lumbar
724.02Spinal stenosis, lumbar
724.2Lumbago; low back pain
724.5Backache, unspecified
724.6Disorders of sacrum
738.4Acquired spondylolisthesis
739.3, 739.4Somatic dysfunction, lumbar region or sacral region
756.11Spondylolysis, lumbosacral region
805.4, 805.6Vertebral fracture without spinal cord injury, closed, lumbar, sacrum, or coccyx
846.0–846.9Sprains and strains of sacroiliac region
847.2, 847.3Sprains and strains, lumbar or sacrum
Exclusion codes
324.1Intraspinal abcess
805.1, 805.3, 805.5, 805.7, 805.9Open vertebral fractures
03.2–03.29Chordotomy (procedure code)