Table 2.

Clinical Characteristics of Study Cohorts

CharacteristicTotal Population (N = 783)Cohort 1* (n = 332)Cohort 2 (n = 447)P
Clinic seeing patient<.001
    Hospital clinic55466%75%
    Community clinic #112615%17%
    Community clinic #29920%7%
    Seen by midlevel provider (PA/NP), not physician54274%66%.02
Initial antibiotic used.01
    TMP-SMX41158%49%
    Fluoroquinolone14920%19%
    Nitrofurantoin18719%28%
    Other medicine242%4%
    No medication prescribed80.3%1.6%
Allergic to TMP-SMX9112%11%.78
Fever at initial visit10%0.2%1.0
Nausea or vomiting626%9%.27
Flank pain or CVA tenderness11513%16%.61
  • * No urine culture ordered.

  • Urine culture ordered.

  • Some patients (n) were missing data from these variables: fever, n = 32; nausea/vomiting, n = 221; flank pain/CVA tenderness, n = 172. Unpaired t test was used to compare means. χ2 test was used to compare proportions (missing data excluded), and Fisher's exact test was used for fever.

  • PA, physician's assistant; NP, nurse practitioner; TMP-SMX, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; CVA, costovertebral angle.