Table 1.

Selected Marketed Tests and Their Performance Characteristics among Low-Risk Populations

Test, ReferencesTarget Condition(s)Prevalence (%)*Sensitivity (%)Specificity (%)PPV (%)Cost (US $)
Whole-body CT1,3–6Lung cancer0.555–8649–951.2–8500 to 1300
Heart scan (electron beam computed tomography)9Obstructive coronary artery disease10804013200 to 500
Quantitative ultrasound of the heel8,13–16Osteoporosis of the hip6–25717314–4715 to 110
Carotid artery duplex sonography 8,17Carotid stenosis0.5–1083–8689–947–6130 to 150
  • * Estimated prevalence range of target condition in US adults of age 40 to 70. Point prevalences are the highest likely prevalence in a general screening population.

  • For most other plausible target conditions of whole-body CT, insufficient data exist to calculate performance characteristics.

  • For these tests, sensitivities and specificities shown in the Table are the maximum simultaneous values based on receiver-operating characteristics.

    PPV, positive predictive value.