Table 1.

Investor-Owned Care: Comparative Examples versus Not-For-Profit Care

HospitalsCosts 3% to 13% higher, with higher overhead, fewer nurses, and death rates 6% to 13% higher.11,17,88
HMOsHigher overhead (25% to 33% for some of the largest HMOs), worse scores on 14 of 14 quality indicators reported to National Committee for Quality Assurance32,33
Dialysis centersDeath rates 30% higher, with 26% less use of transplants81,82
Nursing homesMore citations for poor quality of care (30% committed violations which caused death or life-threatening harm to patients)85
Mental health centersMedicare expelled 80 programs after investigations found that 91% of claims were fraudulent89