Table 4.

Summary of Diving-Related Conditions4,6,7,10,15,16

ConditionPresentationDive HistoryPrevention/Treatment
Barotrauma
    Middle earAcute ear pain, vertigo, tympanic membrane ruptureUsually during descentSlow equalization on descent, decongestants, consider antibiotics for tympanic membrane perforation
    Inner earAcute vertigo, nausea, vomiting, hearing lossUsually during descentBed rest, elevated head, avoidance of Valsalva, otolaryngology consult
    SinusAcute facial pain, epistaxisUsually during descentSlow equalization on descent, decongestants
    Arterial gas embolismStupor, coma, focal weakness, visual disturbancesImmediately upon surfacing or during ascent100% oxygen, supportive care, US Navy Table 6 Algorithm
Decompression Sickness
    Type IPoorly localized joint pain, rash, itchingSignificant time at depth; 50% develop symptoms within 1 hour of surfacing, 90% within 6 hours100% oxygen, supportive care, US Navy Table 6 Algorithm
    Type IINumbness, dizziness, weakness, gait abnormality, hypoesthesiaSignificant time at depth; 50% develop symptoms within 1 hour of surfacing, 90% within 6 hours100% oxygen, supportive care, US Navy Table 6 Algorithm