Table 1.

Description of Studies

AuthorSettingEHR UsedStudy DesignPatients DescriptionPhysicians Description
Gadd (2000)Single center, university based, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation department, Pittsburgh, PAEpicare, commercialPre/post implementation for physicians’ perceptions; only postimplementation for patients Patients surveyed 6 months after implementation of EHRAge 19 to 83 years (median, 45 years); 37% “unsophisticated” with computer use 165 surveys analyzed5 faculty (2 women, 3 men); average age, 37 years
Gadd (2001)Single center, university based, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, internal medicine, renal, pulmonary, geriatrics, ID, Pittsburgh, PAEpicare, commercialPhysicians’ perception of patient satisfaction before and 6 months after EHR implementationNo patients characteristics described 124 encounters analyzed75 physicians (97%) before EHR implementation and 95 faculty (70%) after EHR implementation; average age, 40 years
Garrison (2002)Single center, academic family medicine clinic, MidwestIn-house developedPre (2 years before EHR)/postPatients with hypertension, dyslipidemia Mean age, 64 years 56.5% women Analyzed 200 before and 304 after EHR implementation33 (9 faculty, 24 residents) 2 nurse practitioners 3 years’ experience with EHR
Hsu (2005)Single center, Kaiser Permanente, Portland, OREpic systemsPre (2 months prior)/post (1 and 7 months after)Mean age, 55 years 64% women 32% with college degree 107 before EHR implementation; 81 and 125 after implementation8 (out of 17 primary care physicians in internal medicine and family practice) Age not described
Johnson (2005)Single center, Hospital-based pediatric teaching clinicClictate, non commercial, developed by authorPre (historical)/post (1 year after EHR) surveyPediatric population (<18 months) for well child exams Parents surveyed 149 encounters before EHR implementation; 221 encounters after implementationBefore implementation of EHR: 25% male, 44% PGY1 After implementation: 38% male, 21% PGY1 (both significantly different)
Joos (2006)Single center Adult ambulatory primary care and urgent care clinic in an academic hospital; TNUnknownCross-sectional Physicians’ perception of patient satisfactionNot described46 (out of 70 physicians) 37% younger than 30 years of age 54% male Median of 5 years in practice
Rouf (2006)VA system Primary care clinic NYVA system, non commercialCross-sectionalGroup faculty: mean age, 72 years; 100% male Group residents: mean age, 69.5 years; 93.5% male 6 patients/physician (internist) 155 analyzedFaculty: 11 (out of 18); mean age, 42 years; 36% male; 6 years in practice Residents: 12 (out of 32); mean age, 30 years; 68% male; 2.2 years in practice
  • EHR, electronic health record; ID, infectious disease; PGY1, postgraduate year 1; VA, Veterans Affairs.