Table 4.

Identification and Management for Patients at Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer Based on Family Cancer History

Identification of persons at ‘increased risk’ because of family cancer history
    Prostate cancer risk increased among:
        Men who have a father, brother, or son with cancer of the prostate.
        Men with a mother or sister who has been diagnosed with ovarian cancer.
        Families with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer(s) among first-degree or second-degree relatives may be at increased risk (consider consultation with a genetic counselor/specialist).
Surveillance recommendations for persons at ‘increased risk’ because of family cancer history
    Beginning at age 40 years (or 10 years before age of earliest case in family):
        Evaluate comprehensive family history of cancer and overall health status of patient.
        Discuss risk status and overall health status with patient and plans for ongoing surveillance, including possible PSA testing starting at age 40 years, or earlier, depending upon age of onset in the family (be certain to discuss the risks and benefits of PSA testing and plan for ongoing surveillance).
        Consider a consultation with a genetic counselor for risk assessment.
        Consider whether participation in a prevention trial is an option.
  • PSA, prostate-specific antigen.