Table 3.

Opioids and Other Medications Metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 Enzymes

EnzymesOpioidsPopular Medications/ Substrates
CYP2D6CodeineCarvedilol
DextromethorphanPropafenone
DihydrocodeineAmitriptyline
OxycodoneParoxetine
TramadolRisperidone
Thioridazine
Fluoxetine
Lidocaine
Nortriptyline
Propranolol
Tamoxifen
Venlafaxine
CYP3A4BuprenorphineClarithromycin
FentanylErythromycin
MethadoneAlprazolam
OxycodoneCyclosporine
Chlorpheniramine
Diltiazem
Lovastatin
Hydrocortisone
Buspirone
Caffeine
Nifedipine
Verapamil
Diazepam
  • Data from Flockhart57 and Lalovic et al.58