Treatments P-value for between Group Differences | Erythema Diameter (cm) | Necrosis Diameter (cm) | Healing Time (from Time of Bite in Days) | Percentage Resulting in Scarring |
---|---|---|---|---|

Conservative^{*} | ||||

Yes (N = 121) | 5.8(5.3) | 0.39(0.71) | 23.0(20.9) | 23.0 |

No (N = 68) | 5.6(5.5) | 0.34(0.66) | 20.5(14.7) | 17.5 |

P value | .76 | .61 | .36 | .36 |

Meat tenderizer | ||||

Yes (N = 4) | 4.0(1.7) | 0.63(1.3) | 6(1.4) | 0 |

No (N = 185) | 5.7(5.4) | 0.36(0.72) | 21.8(17.9) | 20.2 |

P value | .13 | .70 | .21 | .61 |

Antihistamine | ||||

Yes (N = 56) | 6.8(5.9) | 0.25(0.74) | 19.0(13.6) | 7.3 |

No (N = 133) | 5.4(5.2) | 0.39(0.72) | 22.4(18.9) | 23.8 |

P value | .09 | .19 | .20 | .02 |

Dapsone | ||||

Yes (N = 42) | 6.7(5.5) | 0.42(1.0) | 25.0(13.5) | 29.0 |

No (N = 147) | 5.5(5.4) | 0.35(0.65) | 21.0(18.6) | 18.3 |

P value | .19 | .69 | .15 | .17 |

DC Current | ||||

Yes (N = 6) | 6.6(4.2) | 0.75(0.88) | 28.2(27.1) | 16.7 |

No (N = 183) | 5.7(5.4) | 0.35(0.72) | 21.4(17.5) | 20.2 |

P value | .69 | .19 | .57 | .83 |

High-dose Vitamin C | ||||

Yes (N = 14) | 6.8(5.8) | 0.38(0.60) | 29.8(23.7) | 44.5 |

No (N = 175) | 5.6(5.4) | 0.36(0.74) | 21.2(17.5) | 18.9 |

P value | .43 | .94 | .16 | .06 |

Systemic corticosteroids | ||||

Yes (N = 76) | 6.0(6.0) | 0.28(0.59) | 24.9(19.0) | 17.0 |

No (N = 113) | 5.6(5.2) | 0.40(0.78) | 20.3(17.3) | 21.5 |

P value | .55 | .17 | .12 | .49 |

Local injection corticosteroids | ||||

Yes (N = 13) | 3.6(2.1) | 0.29(0.31) | 19.8(11.6) | 30 |

No (N = 176) | 5.8(5.5) | 0.37(0.74) | 21.8(18.2) | 19.5 |

P value | .002 | .40 | .73 | .42 |

Topical corticosteroids | ||||

Yes (N = 12) | 3.7(2.7) | 0.08(0.13) | 17.9(12.6) | 10.0 |

No (N = 177) | 5.8(5.5) | 0.38(0.74) | 21.9(18.1) | 20.7 |

P value | .02 | <.0001 | .50 | .41 |

Systemic antibiotics | ||||

Yes (N = 152) | 6.0(5.5) | 0.42(0.78) | 21.8(15.0) | 21.4 |

No (N = 37) | 5.3(5.2) | 0.28(0.64) | 21.4(21.5) | 18.1 |

P value | .31 | .11 | .87 | .58 |

Topical antibiotics | ||||

Yes (N = 50) | 5.4(3.9) | 0.51(0.81) | 22.7(23.1) | 26.3 |

No (N = 139) | 6.2(5.8) | 0.32(0.64) | 21.4(16.3) | 18.5 |

P value | .32 | .20 | .75 | .28 |

Topical nitroglycerine | ||||

Yes (N = 24) | 6.7(4.8) | 0.34(0.61) | 24.2(19.4) | 28.6 |

No (N = 165) | 5.6(5.5) | 0.37(0.74) | 21.3(17.7) | 19.0 |

P value | .30 | .87 | .49 | .30 |

* Conservative treatment included any one or more of the following: expectant observation, cool compresses, elevation, exercise avoidance, immobilization, and/or cleansing.