Table 3.

Longitudinal Effects of Significant Depressive Symptoms at 4 Months Postpartum on Infant and Maternal Health-Related Quality of Life at 8, 12, and 16 Months Postpartum (Adjusted)*

Infant Health-Related Quality of LifeMaternal Health-Related Quality of Life
Pain/Discomfort (n = 203)Health-Related Concerns (n = 203)MCS (n = 202)PCS (n = 202)
Depressive symptoms0.24 (0.080)0.14 (0.042)−1.20 (0.045)−1.19 (0.699)
Covariates
    Age (years)
        18–24−0.09 (0.141)−0.10 (0.075)−1.53 (1.415)1.11 (1.233)
        25–340.08 (0.085)−0.01 (0.045)0.22 (0.856)0.69 (0.748)
Maternal race
    African American−0.26 (0.101)−0.12 (0.053)−0.51 (0.975)0.29 (0.850)
Maternal education
    ≥College0.00 (0.080)−0.06 (0.042)0.88 (0.802)0.06 (0.702)
Marital status
    Married0.13 (0.114)0.02 (0.060)−0.85 (1.162)3.22 (1.007)
Poverty status
    At/below poverty0.14 (0.164)−0.02 (0.086)−1.00 (1.672)2.80 (1.441)
Baseline0.22 (0.056)§0.25 (0.050)§0.51 (0.057)§0.33 (0.053)§
  • All data provided as β (SE).

  • * Reference groups in the models are women aged 35+ years, European American, less than college education, unmarried, and above poverty. All models control for the effects of time and earlier assessments of health-related quality of life. Models for children also control for child sex and birth weight.

  • P ≤ .01.

  • P ≤ .05.

  • § P ≤ .001.

  • MCS, Mental component summary from the 12-item Short Form; PCS, physical component summary from the 12-item Short Form.