Table 1.

Clinical Studies of Cannabis and Its Derivatives with SORT Level of Recommendation56

AgentCondition IndicatedForm of deliveryNature of StudyPatients (n)Outcome MeasuresOutcomeSORT Level of RecommendationReference
CannabisGilles de la Tourette SyndromeSmokingCase report3Self-reported frequency of motor tics50% to 70% remissionCSandyk et al57
CannabisGilles de la Tourette SyndromeSmokingCase report1Self-reported symptoms100% remissionCHemming et al58
CannabisGlaucomaSmoking single doseDouble-blinded cross-over placebo-controlled RCT18Intraocular pressureSignificant reductionBMerritt et al59
CannabisNeuropathic pain in HIV patientSmoking 5 days a week for 2 weeksProspective placebo-controlled RCT28Pain intensity using Descriptor Differential ScaleImprovement in pain (P = .016)AEllis et al49
CannabisSensory neuropathic pain in HIV patientSmoking 3 times a day for 5 daysDouble-blinded cross-over placebo-controlled RCT50Chronic pain ratingsReduction of pain by 34% (P = .03)AAbrams et al48
CannabisCapsaicin-induced pain in volunteersSmoking single dose at various concentrationsDouble-blinded cross-over placebo-controlled RCT15Pain scores and McGill Pain QuestionnairePain reduction at medium dose within a certain time frame onlyBWallace et al60
CannabisAcute inflammatory pain in volunteersSingle oral dose of encapsulate extractDouble-blinded cross-over placebo-controlled RCT18Threshold to heat and electricity in areas with UV-induced sunburntNo effect on pain thresholdsBKraft et al61
CannabisSpasticity due to multiple sclerosisEscalating dose of oral encapsulate extractDouble-blinded cross-over placebo-controlled RCT50Spasms frequency and mobilityImprovement in spasms frequency (P = .013) and mobility (P = .01)AVaney et al62
CannabisSpasticity caused by multiple sclerosisTitrating oral dose of cannabis extractDouble-blinded placebo-controlled RCT327Ashworth score and self-reported spasticityImprovement of self-report ratings of pain and spasticity (P = .003)AZajicek et al63
Δ9-THCGilles de la Tourette SyndromeSingle oral doseCross-over placebo-controlled RCT12TSSL, STSS, YGTSS scoresSignificant reduction in TSSL score (P = .015), nil for STSS and YGTSSAMüller-Vahl et al64
Δ9-THCGilles de la Tourette SyndromeDaily oral dose for 6 weeksPlacebo-controlled RCT24TSSL,TS-CGI, STSS; YGTSSSignificant reduction in TSSL score using ANOVA (P = .037), nil for TS-CGI, STSS, YGTSSAMüller-Vahl et al65
Δ9-THCSpasticity caused by multiple sclerosisEscalating dose for 5 daysDouble-blinded cross-over placebo-controlled RCT13Subjective rating and objective measure of spasticitySignificant in both scoresAUngerleider et al66
Δ9-THCSpasticity due to multiple sclerosisTitrating oral dose of Δ9-THCDouble-blinded placebo-controlled RCT330Ashworth score and self-reported spasticityImprovement of self-report ratings of pain and spasticity (P = .003)AZajicek et al63
Δ9-THCPostoperative painSingle oral dose on postoperative day 2Double-blinded placebo-controlled RCT40Summed pain intensity difference 6 hours after administrationNo significant differenceBBuggy et al67
Δ9-THCRefractory neuropathic painTitrating oral doseOpen label pilot8Neuropathic pain score and quality of lifeNo apparent effectCAttal et al68
Δ9-THCGlioblastoma multiformeDaily intracranial tumour injection up to 64 daysPhase I cohort pilot study9Safety of intracranial route of administrationIntracranial route seems to be safe and may slow down tumour growthCGuzman et al69
Dronabinol (synthetic Δ9-THC)Alzheimer’s diseaseTwice-daily oral dose for 6 weeksDouble-blinded cross-over placebo-controlled RCT15Body weight, triceps skin fold, disturbed behavior, affectA trend of improvement reported but no significance quotedBVolicer et al70
Dronabinol (synthetic Δ9-THC)Alzheimer’s diseaseDaily oral dose for 2 weeksOpen label pilot6Nocturnal motor activity score and Neuropsychiatric InventorySignificant improvement in both (P = .028 and P = 0027)CWalther et al71
Dronabinol (synthetic Δ9-THC)Anorexia and weight loss in AIDSTwice-daily oral dose for 6 weeksPlacebo-controlled RCT139VAS for appetite, mood, and nauseaSignificant change in appetite (38%; P = .015); mood (10%; P = .06); and nausea (20%; P = .05)ABeal et al72
NabiloneSpasticity caused by spinal cord injuryTwice-daily oral dose for 4 weeksDouble-blinded cross-over placebo-controlled RCT12Ashworth Scale, Total Ashworth ScoreSignificant reduction, P = .003 and 0.001 respectivelyAPooyania et al73
NabilonePain caused by fibromyalgiaOral dose for 4 weeksDouble-blinded placebo-controlled RCT40VAS and Fibromyalgia impact questionnaireSignificant reduction in both scores (P < .02)ASkrabek et al74
Sativex (extract of cannabis containing Δ9-THC and cannabidiol)Peripheral neuropathic painSelf-titrating dose of oromucosal spray for 5 weeksDouble-blinded placebo-controlled RCT125Various pain intensity scoresSignificant reduction, (P = .001 to P = .04)ANurmikko et al75
Sativex (extract of cannabis containing Δ9-THC and cannabidiol)Intractable neurogenic symptomsSelf-titrating dose of oromucosal spray for 2 weeksDouble-blinded cross-over placebo-controlled RCT20Self-report symptoms and adverse effectsSignificant relief in pain with certain domains reaching significance of P < .05AWade et al76
Sativex (extract of cannabis containing Δ9-THC and cannabidiol)Central pain in multiple sclerosisSelf-titrating dose of oromucosal spray for 4 weeksDouble-blinded placebo-controlled RCT6611-point scale for pain and sleep disturbanceSignificant reduction of pain (P = .005) and sleep disturbance (P = .003)ARog et al77
Sativex (extract of cannabis containing Δ9-THC and cannabidiol)Bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosisSingle daily dose for 8 weeksOpen label pilot study15Occurrence of urinary incontinence, frequency, nocturiaSignificant reduction in all 3 domains (P < .05)ABrady et al78
  • RCT, randomized controlled trial; UV, ultraviolet; TSSL,; STSS,; YGTSS,; TS-CGI, ANOVA, analysis of variance; VAS, Visual Analog Scale; THC, tetrahydrolcannabinol.