Table 1.

Data Extraction from the Eligible Studies

AuthorCountrySample Size; SexType of Substance UseCo-MorbidityInterventionControl GroupFollow-up PeriodPrimary OutcomeOutcome MeasuresOverall Risk of Bias
Lyons, Thomas et al (2019)15USn = 189; MNot specifiedPTSDYoga plus mindfulness meditationCommunication skills session45 daysAnxiety, PTSD symptoms, craving, and mindfulnessFive Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire; Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory; Beck Anxiety Inventory; Penn Alcohol/Drug Craving Scale; PTSD Symptom ChecklistLow
Uebelacker, L. A. et al (2019)16USn = 35; M and FOpioidNoneYoga (breathing and asana) + TAU (opioid agonist therapy)Health education class + TAU (opioid agonist therapy)3 monthsPain, anxiety, moodSAFTEE, Credibility Expectancy Questionnaire, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Mood pre- and post-test, Pain Interference ScaleLow
Bock, Beth C. (2019)17USn = 227; M and FTobaccoNoneIyengar Yoga + smoking cessation classGroup Wellness class + smoking cessation class3 and 6 monthsMotivation, readiness, and confidence to quitFagerström Test,Low
Wimberly, Alexandra S. et al (2018)18USn = 73; M and FAlcohol and drugsHIVYoga plus TAUTAU (see Table 2)1, 2, and 3 monthsPercentage of days of drug use and the effect of time on treatment.Perceived stress surveyLow
Sharma, Neelam et al (2017)19Indian = 30; MNot specifiedNot specifiedGroup 1: Yoga; Group 2: Recreational ActivityNo training10 weeksCriminal propensityStandardized scale of criminal propensitySome concern
Sarkar et al (2017)20Indian = 1213; M and FTobaccoNot specified15 minutes quit smoking talk + yogic breathing training (Kapalbhati, Anulom)1-minute quick quit smoking advice1 and 7 monthsAbstinence7-day biochemically validated point prevalence abstinenceLow
Dhawan, Anju et al (2015)21Indian = 84; MOpioidNot specifiedSKYOpioid substitution therapy3 and 6 monthsQOLWHO QOL-BREF instrument;Urine test to assess recent drug useSome concern
Reddy, Shivani et al (2014)22Indian = 38; FAlcohol and drugsPTSDYoga (12 Kripalu-based Hatha yoga sessions)No yoga1 monthAlcohol and substance use risky behaviorAUDIT, DUDITLow
  • AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; DUDIT, Drug Use Disorders Identification Test; F, female; M, male; QOL, quality of life; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; SAFTEE, systematic inquiry about emergent clinical events; SKY, Sudarshan Kriya Yoga; TAU, treatment as usual; WHO, World Health Organization; US, United States.