Table 2.

Description of the Interventions and Their Results

Lyons, Thomas et al (2019)156 weeks; 1 session/wk; 70 minutes each. Each session began with mindful movement/stretching/chair yoga exercises (5 minutes), a mindfulness meditation exercise and discussion (∼ 40 minutes), and an exercise applying mindfulness to everyday life and high drug relapse risk situations (∼30 minutes).
Control: Texas Christian University's Mapping-Enhanced Counseling Manuals for Adaptive Treatment compiled into a 6-week Communication Skills curriculum.
Anxiety, PTSD symptoms, and cravings declined, and mindfulness increased significantly in both treatment arms. After controlling for the Freiburg test, there was significant improvement (P < .05) in the scores for participants in the intervention arm.
Uebelacker, L. A. et al (2019)16Yoga: breathing and asana (no meditation) 1 hour; 12 weeks, 1 class/week
Control: Health education-12 classes on different topics
Participant mood improved pre-class to post-class, with greater decreases in anxiety and pain for those in the yoga group (P < .05). ITT analysis of high-attenders only (a little over half the sample) showed moderate improvement in pain interference over 3 months in intervention arm if they attended at least half of the 12 intervention sessions.
Bock, Beth C. (2019)17Classes included 5 minutes of pranayama,45 minutes of dynamically linked asanas, and 5 to 10 minutes of resting meditation.
Group Wellness: videos, lectures, and demonstrations on a variety of health topics followed by a discussion guided by the study Wellness counselor or other health care professional; 8 weeks (1 hour, twice/wk)
Yoga appears to aid some smokers during quit attempts. A significant dose effect was observed for Yoga (OR, 1.12, 95% CI, 1.09% to 1.26%), but not Wellness, such that each Yoga class attended increased quitting odds at EOT by 12%.
Wimberly, Alexandra S. et al (2018)1812 weeks; 90 minutes session/wk; hatha yoga: breathing, postures, and meditation; TAU* - case management, recreational or GED classes, and free healthcare.At three months, yoga participants reported less stress than participants in treatment as usual (P < .05). Yoga participants reported fewer days of substance use than participants in treatment as usual at one month, two months, and three months (P < .001).
Sharma, Neelam et al (2017)19Physical poses, breathing techniques, chanting, and concentration were selected activities in the yoga training program. (10 weeks, 5 1-hour sessions/wk)
Recreational activity training program: cat and mice, changing seats, singing, drop the handkerchief etc.
There exists a significant difference in the selected training program of yoga, recreational activity, and control group for managing criminal propensity of the drug addicts (P < .05). The adjusted mean value of recreational activity group was found to be least 76.67; thus recreational activity group was considered as the most effective treatment group
Sarkar et al (2017)2015 minutes yogic breathing (2): Kapalbhati, AnulomIntention-to-treat analysis showed that participants in the intervention group were aboutfive times more likely to be abstinent at 6 months than those in the control group; absolute abstinence rates were increased by 2%, yielding a number needed to treat of 48 toproduce an additional quitter.
Dhawan, Anju et al (2015)21SKY (sudarshan, pranayama, meditation) 60 minutes weekly in clinic for 6 months and at home for 30 minutes daily.
Opioid substitution therapy: buprenorphine OR buprenorphine + naloxone
Over time within the study group, all four QOL domain scores were significantly higher at 6 months. Urine screening results were negative for study group indicating no drug use at 6 months. Between-group comparison showed significant increase in physical (P < .05), psychological (P < .001), and environment domains (P < .001) for study group while control group showed significant changes in social relationship domain only. Urine screening results were negative for study group indicating no drug use at 6 months.
Reddy, Shivani et al (2014)2212 Kripalu-based Hatha yoga sessions of 75 minutes each, including poses using guidelines for trauma-sensitive yogaLinear mixed models showed significance for null model likelihood ratio tests for AUDIT and DUDIT scores. Change in AUDIT and DUDIT scores over time did not differ significantly by group. The difference in high-risk users between intervention and control groups was not statistically significant (all P > .05). Significant improvement was noted in PTSD symptoms and coping (P < .001).
  • AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; CI, confidence interval; DUDIT, Drug Use Disorders Identification Test; EOT, end of treatment; GED, general education development; ITT, intent-to-treat; OR, odds ratio; QOL, quality of life; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; TAU, treatment as usual.