Table 3.

Overarching Thematic Framework for the Establishment of Practice-Based Research Networks Focusing on the Theme of the Internal Environment Described in This Article

ThemeSubthemeKey Elements
(i) Internal environment of PBRN(ii) Foundation(i) Setting up mission, purposes, goals, objectives, and aims
(ii) Practitioner participation and motivation(i) Recruitment
(ii) Membership
(iii) Levels of member engagement
(iv) Intrinsic motivators to participate and benefits for practitioners
(v) Extrinsic motivators to participate and benefits for practitioners
(iii) Academic participation and attitudes(i) Type of affiliation and advantages–disadvantages of affiliation
(ii) The role of academics and academic departments in developing, hosting, and sustaining the network
(iii) Academic contribution to governance and leadership
(iv) Contribution of academic research expertise
(v) Academic support for research culture development and practitioner empowerment
(vi) Academic initiative to link medical students and residents to PBRN activity
(vii) Benefits for academia from PBRN collaboration
(iv) Network infrastructure and operations(i) Initial partnerships to establish PBRNs and centers of operations
(ii) Infrastructural funding
(iii) Key activities at establishment
(iv) Relationship building between academics and practitioners in the field
(v) Governance
(vi) Organizational leadership
(vii) Methodology of prioritizing the research agenda
(viii) Topics of PBRN research
(ix) Data gathered from networks and data management
(x) QI activities
(xi) Learning environment
(xii) Communication
(ii) Stakeholders at the intersection between the internal and external environment(i) Patients and community stakeholders(i) Patient-centeredness and community engagement in PBRNs
(ii) Relationship building with patient or community groups as an essential part of research
(iii) QI activities guided by patient feedback
(iv) Involving patients or community members in PBRN governance
(v) Integrating CBPR methodology into PBRN research
(vi) Community engaged research methodology in PBRN research
(vii) Motivation of community members for research participation
(viii) Community engagement in health policy making through PBRN activity
(ii) Other health care stakeholders(i) Identification, engagement, and contribution of health care stakeholders
(ii) Relationship building with health care stakeholders
(iii) Other aspects of working with health care stakeholders
(iii) External environment(i) National health system(i) The impact of primary health care structure on PBRN development
(ii) Institutional/governmental support, national/state policy and regulatory environment(i) Decision-makers
(ii) National policy
(iii) Regulatory environment
(iv) Interaction with policy-makers
(v) Community impact on public health policy-makers through PBRN
(iii) Professional organizations(i) National professional organization contribution and support
(ii) International professional organization contribution
(iii) External funders(i) External funder contributions
(iv) Leveraging previous research and PBRN experience and interacting with other networks(i) International experience
(ii) National experience
(iii) Leveraging previous research expertise
(iv) Leveraging PBRN practice models
(v) Leveraging experience from peer networks
(vi) Interacting with other networks
(vii) Developing networks of PBRNs
(v) HIT and HIT vendors(i) HIT applications sustain the infrastructure
(ii) HIT applications facilitating or supporting the PBRN operation
(iii) HIT vendors contribute to sustainability
(iv) HIT vendor in the partnership of the network
(v) Challenges from the variety of EHR systems
  • EHR, electronic health record; HIT, health information technology; PBRN, practice-based research network; QI, quality improvement.