Table 2.

Patients Prescribed Opioids and Exposure to Opioid Educational Information by Health Care Provider Group

Type of Health Care Provider Group
Patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain during past 3 months (%)*,
    1–5 patients25.516.424.426.0
    6–10 patients19.
    11–20 patients13.
    21 or more patients15.
    Don't know/not sure1.
Patients prescribed opioids past 3 months versus 12 months (%)*,
Sources for opioid educational information (%)*
    Hospital or conference presentations41.7a33.8c27.0d40.9b
    Online presentations or webinars42.5b33.2d39.3d51.8a
    Sponsored event7.
    Medical journals59.9a40.9b53.4a58.8a
    Prescribing information/REMS materials24.5a15.2b18.825.1a
    Promotional materials8.95.4b8.811.6a
    Other information sources6.
Exposure to opioid educational information during the past 12 months#
    95% CI1.80–2.021.04–1.491.45–1.721.88–2.16
    %exposed **89.8a71.9c78.8b85.5a
Recall of opioid promotions††
    95% CI1.53–1.751.04−1.281.51–1.751.71–1.93
ADF knowledge score‡‡
    95% CI1.78–2.041.09–1.371.34–1.641.34–1.63
  • ADF, abuse-deterrent formulations; BH, Benjamini-Hochberg procedure; CI, confidence interval; NPs, nurse practitioners; PAs, physician assistants; PCPs, primary care physicians; REMS, Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy; SPs, specialists.

  • * χ2 tests using the Agresti logit uniform association model were first conducted across the 4 groups, followed by pairwise comparisons using the BH procedure.

  • PCPs were significantly different from NPs, PAs, and SPs, BH P < .01.

  • a > c > d and b > d, BH adjusted, P < .05.

  • a > b > d and a > c, BH adjusted, P < .05.

  • a > b, BH adjusted P < .05.

  • # A global measure of exposure to opioid educational information was created by summing the “yes” responses for each source of opioid educational information. Means represent the average exposure per group. “% exposed” represents the percentage of respondents in each health care provider group that read at least 1 opioid educational material or attended 1 opioid educational event.

  • ** a > b > c, BH adjusted, P < .05.

  • †† “Yes” responses to questions about seeing prescription drug promotions in the last 6 months related non-opioid analgesics, medication-assisted treatment for opioid deterrence, and opioid reversal agents were combined to create an overall recall measure of prescription drug promotions.

  • ‡‡ Correct responses to 5 ADF questions were summed to create a total ADF knowledge score.