Appendix Table 1.

Types of Organizations That Initiated and Supported PBRNs at Their Establishment and Relevant Quotations

Type of OrganizationQuotations
A professional organization initiated the network“PROS is a program of the American Academy of Pediatrics.” (Wasserman et al 2011)“The RNZCGP Computer Research Network is a development of the Dunedin RNZCGP Research Unit. This unit was established in 1984 by a single $7000 grant from the RNZCGP, and is maintained by further research grants from peer-reviewed research funding agencies and the pharmaceutical industry.” (Dovey and Tilyard 1996)
A special interest group within the national professional organization initiated the network“CORNET is the practice-based research network (PBRN) of pediatric resident continuity practices that developed from the APA Continuity Special Interest Group (SIG). In 1995, the Task Force of the Continuity SIG presented a workshop at the APA national meeting. In preparation for this workshop, more than 70 manuscripts of research studies completed in pediatric residency continuity practices were collated.” (Wassermann et al 2011)
An academic department initiated the network“Recognizing that collaborative research networks were needed in California, the Division of Family and Community Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), discussed a proposal for collaborative research at its annual meeting.” (Osborn and Petitti 1988)
More than one academic department initiated the network“In 1996, a joint proposal for funding a new network of research and development general practices was put to the regional R&D directorate by the three heads of departments of general practice in South Thames, Professors Sean Hilton (St George's), Roger Jones (UMDS) and Roger Higgs (King's), in collaboration with the two postgraduate deans of general practice education, Drs Ri Hornung and Alan Ruben.” (Carter 1998, p. 85)
An academic department initiated the network and based the operations“UPRNet is a program of Michigan State University College of Human Medicine's Upper Peninsula campus, from which we receive infrastructure support.” (Pearls of Research 1998)
An academic department together with a regional health authority initiated the network“The North Staffordshire General Practice (GP) Research Network was established by the Primary Care Sciences Research Centre (PCSRC) at Keele University, the North Staffordshire Health Authority, and local general practices in 1997.” (Porcheret et al 2004)
A professional organization and the academic department initiated the network“The Oklahoma Academy of Family Physicians in collaboration with the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center established a primary care practice-based research network with thirteen family practice offices currently participating.” (Mold and Barton 1996)
A clinical and translational science institute affiliated to a university initiated the network“The University of Rochester's CTSA-funded Clinical and Translational Science Institute established the Greater Rochester PBRN (GR-PBRN).” (Gibson et al 2010)“As part of an effort by the Community Outreach and Research Translation Core of the University of Washington's CTSA (the Institute of Translational Health Sciences—ITHS) to build a PBRN in the Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, Idaho (WWAMI) states, seven clinical practices in the University of Washington's (UW) Family Medicine Residency Network (FMRN) participated in a study of clinical importance to the practices that simultaneously built research capacity and infrastructure at the sites.” (Baldwin et al 2012)
The academic department together with HIT vendors initiated the network“The PPRNet activities will be conducted under a set of operational procedures that are consistent with contracts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), IMS America, and Physician Mirco Systems Inc. (PMSI), and IMS America (IMS).” (Ornstein and Jenkins 1997)
A consortium of research organizations initiated the network“FIMMG (FederazioneItaliana Medici di MedicinaGenerale), CSeRMEG (Centro Studi e Ricerca in MedicinaGenerale), CoS (ConsorzioSanità), Ass. Cu.M.I. (AssociazioneCulturaleMedicaInterdisciplinare), AMISI (Associazione per la MedicinaIntegrativa e la Sanità Integrata) and Istituto di RicercheFarmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’ supported and stimulated the interest in practice-based research activity. This collaborative will be the basis of the research infrastructure.” (Visentin 2005)
The network was built upon existing networks“The Scottish Primary Care Research Network was finally built upon existing networks of teaching and training practices centered on research active departments of general practice and primary care. This meant that a climate already favorable to research existed and several of the necessary skills were available.” (Sullivan et al 2014)
A national federation of PBRNs in collaboration with a PBRN and HIT infrastructure from a university initiated the network“The ePCRN integrates the practice-based research expertise from the community practices of the Federation of Practice-based Research Networks (FP-BRN) with the advanced “Grid” electronic infrastructure of the University of Minnesota (UM), and the Midlands Research Practices Consortium (Mi- dReC), one of the largest PCRNs in the United Kingdom.” (Peterson et al 2006)
A group of community health centers initiated the network“CHCs [Community Health Centers] governed by patient boards, community advocates, and other safety net organizations from multiple communities formed a member-based, nonprofit collaborative, originally called the Oregon Community Health Information Network (renamed “OCHIN, Inc.” as members from other states joined), to facilitate adopting health IT and a learning environment to improve care quality for vulnerable populations.” (2013) “The PBRN…was housed at OCHIN to maximize its independence and focus on community-based research.” (DeVoe et al 2011)
A public health agency and a national professional organization initiated the network“In 2006, the Canadian Institutes for Health Research funded a workshop at Queen's University, bringing together primary care researchers from across the country interested in building a national network. Representatives of the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) were also in attendance and were looking for opportunities to establish primary care data sources for chronic disease surveillance.” (Birtwhistle et al 2009)
“In 2008, PHAC issued a request for proposal for a primary care sentinel surveillance system for chronic disease. The chronic diseases of interest were cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, mental health, arthritis, and diabetes. The CFPC's application was successful and the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) was born.” (Birtwhistle et al 2009)
A group of community stakeholders and a PBRN shared resource initiated the network“The DD-PBRN is a multistakeholder, community-based PBRN established in 2013 with the support of the PBRN Shared Resource at Case Western Reserve University through the National Institutes of Health–funded Cleveland Clinical and Translational Science Collaborative.” (Tyler and Werner 2014)
A professional organization initiated the network and based its operations“The WRS developed out of the Royal College of General Practitioners' Epidemic Observation Unit.” (Fleming and Crombie 1985)
A professional organization initiated the network and the academic department based the center of operations:“The Wisconsin network was initiated by the Wisconsin Academy of Family Physicians (WAFP) and is managed and receives support from the University of Wisconsin.” (van Weel 2000)
A professional organization and an academic department based the center of operations“We have also established a central office at the CFPC [College of Family Physicians of Canada] for the project manager/director and support staff. The chair of the board of CPCSSN is currently at Queen's University, where the central repository is housed. In the future, however, the chair may be at another network so the funding for the office of the chair will float.” (Birtwhistle et al 2009)
An academic department based the center of operations“The University Family Practice Network is composed of five practices and is managed jointly by the Department of General Practice.” (Laurence et al 2001)“The Primary Health Care Research Network (PHReNet) is being established by the University of NSW as part of the NSW Primary Health Care Research Capacity Building Program. This program is funded by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care to develop and support research and evaluation in general practice and primary health care in Australia.” (Mehmet et al 2004)“KAN is administered through the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Kentucky in Lexington.” (Love et al 2006)
  • HIT, health information technology; PBRN, practice-based research network.