Table 3.

Logistic Regression Model for Likelihood of Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain to Fewer Patients at 3 Months Relative to 12 Months Ago*

PredictorsAdjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)P value
Number of patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain in last 3 months1.36 (1.23–1.49).001
ADF knowledge score0.99 (0.90–1.09).812
Exposure to opioid educationalinformation in last 12 months1.19 (1.06–1.32).002
Recall of opioid promotion1.08 (0.90–1.22).240
Health care providers
    SPs0.61 (0.43–0.87).006
    PAs0.69 (0.48–1.01).056
    NPs0.68 (0.47–0.99).042
Race/ethnicityHispanic1.27 (0.72–2.23).407
    Asian1.27 (0.86–1.88).228
    Black1.08 (0.46–2.53).861
    Other1.12 (0.60–2.08).726
Practice type
    Clinics/urgent care centers0.84 (0.55–1.29).433
    Non-federal government clinics1.97 (1.12–3.49).021
    Federal government clinics0.67 (0.34–1.31).237
    Health maintenance organizations0.82 (0.45–1.49).512
    Community health centers0.87 (0.56–1.35).533
    Other0.70 (0.43–1.15).158
    Solo/group practiceReference
    Male1.23 (0.93–1.63).140
Age1.01 (0.99–1.02).062
  • ADF, abuse-deterrent formulations; CI, confidence interval; NPs, nurse practitioners; PAs, physician assistants; PCPs, primary care physicians; SPs, specialists.

  • * The outcome variable is based on responses to the question: Is the number of patients you prescribed opioids for chronic pain in the past 3 months relative to 12 months ago, the same, less, or more. Response options same and more were combined and compared to less.

  • Correct responses to 5 ADF questions were summed to create a ADF knowledge score.

  • Exposure to opioid educational information was created by summing “yes” responses for each source of opioid educational information.

  • “Yes” responses to questions about seeing prescription drug promotions in the last 6 months related non-opioid analgesics, medication-assisted treatment for opioid deterrence, and opioid reversal agents were combined to create an overall recall measure of prescription drug promotions.

  • Asian, Black, Other, and White race categories are Non-Hispanic.