Appendix Table 6.

Example of Synthesis of Key Element “Organizational Leadership”

SubthemesKey ElementsComponentsRelated Quotations
Network infrastructure and operationsOrganizational leadershipCharacteristics of a PBRN leaderRecognized and enthusiastic leaders: “A worthy project such as an APRN research network requires recognized spokespersons in primary care research who are well regarded in both the nursing and medical fields for the importance and integrity of their work. They need to be relatively established in an academic setting that recognizes and supports their research and allows them ready access to other leaders in their field, both nationally and internationally. They must be willing to make the time to start such a project and must have the energy and enthusiasm to see it through. For an APRN research network, they need a clear vision of such a network, a solid perspective of both its promise and limitations, and a sense of humor to communicate that vision to fellow colleagues and staff.” (Deshefy-Longhi et al 2002)
“Generally the network has no track record other than the reputation of its director and the members of its planning committee.” (Deshefy-Longhi et al 2002)Leaders with engagement and motivation:
“PBRNs also require a champion that has the knowledge, energy, enthusiasm, and commitment to share the PBRN's vision with others.” (Deshefy-Longhi et al 2002)
“The former National Association of School Nurse's (NASN) Research Consultant who had worked with other PBRNs served in this capacity.” (Vessey et al 2007)
Leaders and/or founders with senior academic and clinician background“The network Director is a long-standing GP in the area who now has a senior academic role with the Graduate School of Medicine, University of Wollongong. The Director, as a GP peer, provides an experienced perspective regarding the reality of implementing research within general practice.” (Dijkmans-Hadley et al 2015)
“Visible leadership by the university and hospital Chairman of Pediatrics (J.A.S.) has helped to provide authority and prestige to the organization.” (Christoffel et al 1988)
“The PPRG was founded in 1984 by Katherine Kaufer Christoffel, MD, MPH, in partnership with leaders in the Department of Pediatrics.” (LeBailly 2003)
“In the case of WreN, the initial organizer was a physician in an academic setting who was able to arrange for protected time to facilitate the network development and who had ready access to secretarial and related support services.” (Beasley 1991)
Leader is academic professor in the department“The appointment of a professor of primary care research and development at the Tayside Centre for General Practice coincided with this successful bid.” (Pithketly and Sullivan 2003)
Leader has previous PBRN experience“I have been involved with practice-based research for more than 17 years on several levels. I have been an Ambulatory Sentinel Practice Network (ASPN) clinician since 1982, an ASPN board member since 1993, and ASPN's president since 1997.” “I cofounded the Michigan Research Network (MiRNet) in 1984.” (Pearls of Research 1998, p. 72)
Leadership providing critical momentum for capacity development and research activity“The combination of factors—a multi-state network of safety net clinics, an EHR with rich data linked across the network, and support from OCHIN's leadership—provided momentum for developing capacity to improve care quality in the safety net by optimizing practice through research.” (DeVoe et al 2011)
“…as described in the quality improvement and practice transformation literature, engaged leadership and a willing champion within each individual practice (eg, quality improvement leader or office manager) helped to maintain momentum, to demonstrate the value of the data for improving quality of care, and to provide audit and feedback to providers and staff.” (Kwan et al 2016)
Leadership with interest to improve practice and influence policy“OCHIN leaders had a vision that extended beyond supporting the delivery of clinical care in safety net settings. There was interest in developing resources to improve practice and to influence policy.” (DeVoe et al 2011)
Key recommendations for leadership“Cultivate and support; Leaders and collaboration; Share resources; Build bridges and partnerships; Add value in multiple differing spheres.” (DeVoe et al 2012)
  • EHR, electronic health record; HIT, health information technology; QI, quality improvement.