Table 3.

Associations between Opioid Use and Self-Reported Driving Outcomes

MeanSDMeanSDUnadjusted Beta EstimatePartially Adjusted Beta Estimate*Fully Adjusted Beta Estimate
β95% CIβ95% CIΒ95% CI
Self-rated driving ability5.−0.18−0.29, −0.08−0.19−0.30, −0.080.04ag−0.08, 0.15
Self-rated driving comfort5.−0.02−0.17, 0.13<0.00−0.15, 0.150.21adg0.05, 0.36
Lapses1.−0.03−0.09, 0.04−0.04−0.11, 0.03−0.08befg−0.15, −0.01
Errors1.<0.00−0.04, 0.06<0.00−0.05, 0.06−0.03befg−0.09, 0.02
Violations1.−0.02−0.08, 0.04−0.03−0.10, 0.03−0.02abef−0.08, 0.04
  • * Adjusted for age, gender, race, and ethnicity.

  • In addition to age, gender, race and ethnicity, models may be adjusted for atotal household income, bhighest level of education, cemergency department visit in the past year; dhospital visit in the past year, ealcohol use in the past 3 months, fhad 4 or more drinks on 1 occasion in the past 3 months, gphysical function.

  • SD, standard deviation; CI, confidence interval.