Table 1.

Baseline Sociodemographic, Clinical, and Psychological Characteristics of Patients (N = 358)

Age, y
Highest educational level
    High school diploma or lower9125
    Post-high school or some college14240
    College degree or higher12535
Cigarette smoking status
    Never or former smoker29783
    Current smoker6117
Chronic low back pain duration
    Less or equal to 5 y12836
    Greater than 5 y23064
History of low back surgery
Ever unemployed or unable to do usual work for one month or longer due to low back pain
Ever received disability or workers' compensation benefits relating to low back pain
Ever involved in a lawsuit or legal claim relating to low back pain
History of comorbidities
    Herniated disc
    Heart disease
Pain catastrophizing (PCS score)
    Low (0–8)11231
    Moderate (9–22)12334
    High (23–52)12334
Pain self-efficacy (PSEQ score)
    Low (0–28)11733
    Moderate (29–42)11632
    High (43–60)12535
Current use of opioids for low back pain
  • Abbreviations: PCS, Pain Catastrophizing Scale; PSEQ, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire.