Table 3.

Gender Affirming Surgeries

Masculinizing SURGERIESFeminizing SURGERIES
Bilateral mastectomy: removal of both breasts, usually with nipple graftsBreast augmentation: surgery usually requires insertion of silicone or saline breast implants
Masculinization laryngoplasty: vocal cord surgery that augments the vocal fold contours to deepen the voiceFeminization laryngoplasty: vocal cord surgery that reduces the larynx and shortens the length of the vibratory vocal fold resulting in higher pitch
Facial masculinization surgery: this may include forehead lengthening, jaw augmentation and genioplasty (chin reshaping)Facial feminization surgery: can include rhinoplasty, jaw reduction, cheek augmentation and brow lift
Thyroid cartilage enhancement: surgical augmentation of the size of the laryngeal prominence using rib cartilage or an implantChondrolaryngoplasty: tracheal shave, reduces the size of the laryngeal prominence
Hysterectomy/oophorectomy: removal of uterus and ovariesOrchiectomy: removal of the testicles
Vaginectomy: removal of the vaginal epithelium and obliteration of the vaginal canal. This is done after hysterectomy.Vaginoplasty: creation of a vagina using penile and scrotal skin or intestinal graft
Metoidioplasty: creation of a neophallus from the clitoris
Phalloplasty: use of a free flap to create a neophallus
Scrotoplasty: creation of a scrotum using the labia majora with placement of testicular implants