Table 1.

Discrepancy Between Positive Social Risk and Interest in Assistance: Examples from US Health Services Published Research*

Authors (Publication Years)Social Risk DomainPositive Screen, %Positive Screen Interested in Assistance, %
Bottino et al. (2017)19Food insecurity3254
Eismann et al. (2018)26Food insecurity1190
Harsh punishment170
Parental stress1479
Parental depression974
Parental substance use<150
Safety concern671
Fox et al. (2016)20Food insecurity3475§
Garg et al. (2010)25Childcare2964
Food insecurity11
Housing instability12
Public benefits5
Gold et al. (2018)7Multiple social risk factors91; 98,15; 21
Hassan et al. (2015)14Education14#56
Financial strain1083
Food insecurity2938
Housing instability3437
Safety concern1616
Substance use206
Knowles et al. (2018)21Food insecurity1656
Martel et al. (2018)22Food insecurity-††63
Schickedanz et al. (2019)23Multiple social risk factors5348
Swavely et al. (2018)5Food insecurity2748
Tong et al. (2018)6Education267
Financial strain110
Food insecurity722
Housing instability420
Safety concern2100
Social isolation250
Uwemedimo and May (2018)24Multiple social risk factors4349
  • * These are examples from previously published literature but do not reflect findings from a systematic literature review.

  • Depending on study outcome, interest signifies acceptance of referral, intervention enrollment, or similar metric. Type of assistance offered differed by study and may account for some of the noted fluctuations in interest in assistance between studies.

  • Thirty-four percent were eligible for/offered a referral to food bank based on being food insecure or having public insurance, and not already enrolled in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Only 24% screened positive for food insecurity.

  • § 75% of those eligible for referral, agreed to be referred, but only 8% were confirmed to have enrolled in the food bank.

  • Authors did not provide information to separate by domain.

  • Results reported are for overall percentage of participants with ≥1 endorsed social risk and percentage of those who were interested in assistance, from two different community health centers.

  • # Showing the percentage of participants who screened positive for a “major problem” in each domain.

  • ** Included nutrition/bodyweight.

  • †† Authors only reported the total number of patients with food insecurity who accepted a referral.