Table 1.

Description of the Change Elements Addressed using the 7S Model

Safe Opioid Prescribing for Pain ManagementTreating OUD
Strategy: The plan of action to be used.
• Develop shared general principles for safe prescribing of chronic opioids in accordance with expert recommendations that standardizes a team-based, clinic-wide approach• Develop team-based care to provide care for patients 6with OUD
• Develop new curricula for residents and other clinicians in the practice• Institute office-wide medication-for OUD treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone and intramuscular (IM) naltrexone
• Develop support systems among clinicians managing patients on chronic opioids for chronic pain• Foster a safe and welcoming environment that destigmatizes substance use disorders and approaches addiction as a neurobiological disease
Systems: Daily activities and procedures instituted to get the job done
• Create, implement, and monitor a policy for prescribing opioids, addressing: initiating prescribing, prescribing to legacy patients• Assure prescribers, preceptors, and residents (after first year) receive onsite buprenorphine waiver training
• Develop a workflow to document opioid use on every problem list• Develop and institute group visits (shared medical appointments) for patients with OUD
• Implement and enforce adherence to controlled substance agreements• Develop a workflow for centralized intake of all new patients for OUD treatment utilizing one full-time addiction nurse
• Integrate mental health clinicians• Create a health system-wide list-serve to share best practices, ask questions, get further support around OUD management
• Create a specialized, interdisciplinary referral service for complex patients with pain and/or addiction• Develop a referral system to specialized outpatient addiction services for selected patients
• Create a monthly forum for discussion of difficult and complex patients• Institute team meeting time to discuss management decisions and revise logistical components of group-based management
• Create a clinic workflow for medical assistants to check the prescription monitoring program, administer the pain functional assessment tool, and collect urine for drug screen monitoring
Develop smart-phrases (“dot-phrases”) for our electronic medical record to aid with note writing and clinical decision-making and to aid in adherence to policies
Structure: How our system is organized/who reports to who
• Institution-wide chronic pain working group develops quality improvement metrics around safe prescribing behaviors• One lead physician and one full-time addiction nurse provide oversight to management of all patients with OUD
• Medical director provides oversight of clinicians managing patients receiving chronic opioids• Designated dedicated interdisciplinary team provides group-based opioid treatment (shared medical appointments)
Style: The style of leadership
• Participatory leadership led by the clinic director• Centralized clinic interdisciplinary team with top-down leadership from lead physician and lead addiction nurse
• Charismatic leadership provided by a key opinion leader• Mentorship for decision-making for patients with OUD is provided by an interdisciplinary care team, a separate consultation service, and a system-wide shared email list-serve for consultation questions
Staff: The people and their special capabilities
• Physicians, physician assistants, nurses, medical assistants, care partners (social workers), and primary care health psychologists, each with unique roles to care for patients at the individual level• A family physician obtained board certification in addiction medicine; a nurse completed enhanced addiction training
• Physician assistant and back-up physicians assist with the oversight of managing patients with OUD
A multidisciplinary consultation team with expertise complex pain/addiction problems
Skills: Skills and competencies needed to get the job done
• Curriculum to disseminate evidence-based guidelines and clinic-specific policies around safe opioid prescribing, nonopioid pharmacologic options, and nonpharmacological approaches• Buprenorphine training for all physicians
• Care partners training to provide continuity and to teach nonpharmacological approaches to pain management• Naloxone administration training to all staff
• Longitudinal addictions curriculum for residents
• Reception staff training in the special needs of patients with OUD
Medical assistant training in intake and urine collection
Primary care behavioral health psychologists trained in collaborative management
  • OUD, opioid use disorder.