Table 2.

Descriptions of Participating Clinics in Three Trials (2012 to 2019)

Intervention and Clinic CharacteristicsTrial 1, 2012 to 2013 (n = 10 clinics)Trial 2, 2014 to 2017 (n = 7)Trial 3, 2018 to 2019 (n = 10)
Intervention ApproachNo Toolkit Expert Facilitation1st and 2nd Editions For Facilitators3rd Edition For PC Clinics
PC, family medicine631
PC, internal medicine110
PC, combined specialties209
Surgical specialist110
Medical specialist010
Dental care/oral surgery010
Number of providers in clinics (range)48 (2–11)61 (5–15)42 (2–11)
Health system553
Independent group or solo311
Primary Driver To Participate
Champion in clinic came forward656
Corporate decision to improve opioid prescribing323
Medical practice board investigation101
  • n, number of clinics in trial; PC, primary care; FQHC, Federally Qualified Health Center.