Table 2.

Adjusted* Odds Ratios (ORs), Imaging in the First 6 Weeks vs. No Imaging in the First 6 Weeks for Patients with De Novo Low Back Pain in 2014

Dependent VariableOR95% CI
Short-term opioid use1.211.15 to 1.28
Nonchronic opioid use1.781.69 to 1.88
Chronic opioid use1.131.07 to 1.18
Steroid injections2.552.28 to 2.85
Spinal surgery3.402.97 to 3.90
Persistent low back pain1.091.05 to 1.14
  • CI, confidence interval.

  • * Adjustment factors were interventions in the first 6 weeks after the index date (single physical therapy visit, multiple physical therapy visits, chiropractic visit, osteopathic visit, nonnarcotic prescription for pain relief), use of opioids in the prior 90 days, specialty of specialist at initial presentation, site of care at initial presentation, age, sex, region, urbanicity, and health plan type.