Table 1.

Characteristics of Visit Sample and Factors Associated with Diabetes Screening (n = 105,721)

VariableTotal No. (n = 105,721)Diabetes Screening (n = 8,375), N (weighted %)No Diabetes Screening (n = 97,346), N (weighted %)Adjusted OR of Screening (95% CI)
Age (years)
    18 to 445,845 (6.8)653 (8.6)5,192 (6.6)1.00
    45 to 6452,100 (49.7)4,302 (53.6)47,798 (49.2)1.18 (0.96–1.46)
    ≥6547,776 (43.5)3,420 (37.8)44,356 (44.2)0.86 (0.69–1.06)
Race
    White92,347 (83.8)7,043 (78.2)85,304 (84.5)1.00
    Black9,263 (10.5)918 (14.9)8,345 (9.9)1.28 (1.03–1.58)
    Other*4,111 (5.7)414 (7.0)3,697 (5.5)1.44 (1.14–1.82)
Sex
    Female60,831 (58.5)4,633 (56.9)56,198 (58.7)1.00
    Male44,890 (41.5)3,742 (43.1)41,148 (41.3)0.99 (0.88–1.11)
BMI
    <18.542,799 (36.1)1,451 (13.1)41,348 (39.1)1.00
    18.5 to 2516,062 (16.4)1,536 (19.8)14,526 (15.9)2.63 (2.15–3.21)
    25 to 3022,692 (23.6)2,703 (36.3)19,989 (21.9)3.17 (2.63–3.81)
    ≥3024,168 (24.0)2,685 (30.7)21,483 (23.1)2.08 (1.72–2.51)
Primary payer
    Private46,101 (44.3)4,085 (50.5)42,016 (43.4)1.00
    Medicare/Medicaid46,584 (43.4)3,431 (40.3)43,153 (43.8)0.79 (0.69–0.91)
    Uninsured4,006 (4.6)164 (1.9)3,842 (5.0)0.52 (0.37–0.73)
    Other9,030 (7.7)695 (7.4)8,335 (7.8)0.87 (0.61–1.25)
    Smoking13,764 (12.8)1,333 (15.7)12,431 (12.5)0.98 (0.87–1.10)
Comorbidity
    Hypertension36,729 (37.1)4,512 (53.0)32,217 (35.0)1.05 (0.92–1.20)
    CHF3,365 (3.3)365 (3.4)3,000 (3.3)0.75 (0.58–0.96)
    CAD4,996 (5.4)740 (7.7)4,256 (5.1)0.97 (0.79–1.19)
    PCOS70 (0.08)19 (0.2)51 (0.1)
Abnormal lipids§1,323 (1.3)362 (3.2)961 (1.1)1.69 (1.30–2.20)
Prediabetes5,406 (6.0)1,523 (16.7)3,883 (4.6)2.56 (2.19–3.00)
Total no. of chronic conditions
    034,527 (30.5)1,241 (14.8)33,286 (32.6)1.00
    132,263 (30.2)2,102 (25.6)30,161 (30.8)1.56 (1.33–1.83)
    220,470 (20.0)2,362 (26.6)18,108 (19.0)2.26 (1.87–2.74)
    >218,461 (19.4)2,670 (33.0)15,791 (17.6)2.97 (2.37–3.72)
Physician Specialty
    Family/Internal medicine18,378 (29.3)3,959 (62.8)14,419 (24.8)1.00
    CVD specialty3,730 (4.6)520 (5.0)3,210 (4.5)0.38 (0.25–0.58)
    Other83,613 (66.0)3,896 (32.2)79,717 (70.7)0.26 (0.22–0.31)
Physician Office
    Metropolitan area93,411 (91.7)7,350 (92.3)86,061 (91.6)0.83 (0.67–1.03)
Region
    Northeast15,449 (21.5)1,518 (27.5)13,931 (20.7)1.00
    Midwest28,363 (17.9)2,207 (16.9)26,156 (18.0)0.61 (0.48–0.78)
    South37,030 (37.4)2,972 (36.7)34,058 (37.5)0.67 (0.52–0.88)
    West24,879 (23.2)1,678 (18.9)23,201 (23.8)0.52 (0.40–0.67)
  • * Other races include Hispanic, Asian, Native American, and multiple races.

  • Other sources of payments include worker's compensation, other, and unknown.

  • Not a reliable estimate due to a small number (<30) of patients with PCOS in the screening group.

  • § High density lipoprotein (HDL) <35 mg/dL or triglycerides (TG) >250 mg/dL

  • BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; CVD, cardiovascular disease; OR, odds ratio; PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome; CHF congestive heart failure; CAD, coronary artery disease.